Lex localis - Journal of Local Self-Government 2022-11-25T09:33:54Central Europe Standard Time Editorial Office Open Journal Systems <p align="justify">Lex localis - Journal of Local Self-Government is an international journal for the study of the politics, administration, and management of local affairs published four times a year (in January, April, July, and October) by Institute for Local Self-Government Maribor (Slovenia). Articles appearing in Lex localis - Journal of Local Self-Government are abstracted and indexed in Social Sciences Citation Index (Web of Science), Essential Science Indicators (Web od Science), CSA Worldwide Political Science Abstracts, Current Geographical Publications, CSA PAIS International, Academic's OneFile (Gale), ERIH Plus, International Political Science Abstracts, ProQuest, Scopus, International Bibliography of Periodical Literature (IBZ), International Bibliography of the Social Sciences (IBSS).</p> How does Decentralization Affect the Performance of Municipalities in Urban Environmental Management in the Philippines? 2022-11-25T08:40:01Central Europe Standard Time Kenichi Nishimura <p>This study explored the factors that affect the environmental management performance of municipalities in the Philippines, which have expanded their environmental policy authority through decentralization. Individual case studies have shown that in order for a municipality that has expanded its authority over environmental policy in the process of decentralization to effectively implement this policy, it is important that the mayor take political initiative to overcome financial and technical constraints and encourage the effective participation of stakeholders. In response to these arguments, this study examines each of the following four questions – whose policy input improves local government performance, whether local government performance improves when mayors have frequent contact with stakeholders, whether the frequent contact with external political actors affect the performance of local governments, and whose financial support increases local government performance – using statistical analysis on the results of a large-scale local government survey in the Philippines. It was revealed that financial inputs from the private sector and a frequent contact with the neighboring local governments have a positive correlation with high environmental management performance, while close relationships with various stakeholders and strong financial support from the central government departments have a negative correlation, and the mayor's policy initiative has no effect.</p> 2022-11-02T08:32:07Central Europe Standard Time ##submission.copyrightStatement## Centralization, Decentralization and Recentralization in Pakistan: A Case Study of the Rise and Ultimate Demise of Devolution Plan 2000 2022-11-25T08:42:11Central Europe Standard Time Sajjad Ali Khan <p>Despite the nearly universal acceptance of the maxim “institutions matter”, disagreements prevail with respect not only to which sorts of institutional arrangements are most conducive to fostering growth and effective government and what countries can or should do in order to get “the right institutions” in place, but also to the origins and determinants of institutional change per se. This article seeks to contribute to the debates concerning institutions, institutional change and development through a case study of the introduction, implementation and ultimate defeat of the World Bank-supported decentralization reforms in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa province of Pakistan. Promulgated under the rubric of Devolution Plan, the decentralization reforms culminated in subverting provincial government’s autonomy in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa province over key political and administrative issues at the grassroots. However, intent on regaining its devolved powers in anticipation to come to grips with its dwindling political clout at grassroots levels, the provincial government pursued an organized and sustained campaign of introducing a raft of amendments to the North West Frontier Province Local Government Ordinance 2001. Many of these contentious amendments proved so insidious that they not only gradually undermined the newly established system of local self-governance but ultimately precipitated its dismantlement altogether. The findings offer implications for the New Institutional Economics’ conception of institutional change upon which contemporary development policy and praxis hinge.</p> 2022-11-02T08:34:43Central Europe Standard Time ##submission.copyrightStatement## Convergence and Catching-up Hypotheses in Local Governments: A New Evidence from the North Cyprus Municipalities 2022-11-25T08:45:11Central Europe Standard Time Dilber Çağlar Onbaşıoğlu Sami Fethi <p>One of the most important aims for local governments is usually based on how they improve their own performance. This steps from growth of the population, scarcity of government resources, increased of the demand for essential government services and budget deficit as well as indebtedness. Local administrations are attempting to reduce the burden on these issues by enhancing their own performance. This paper empirically investigates the convergence hypothesis if the similar local governments within the country converge to the same long-run steady state by considering the five major Turkish Cypriot municipalities in the North Cyprus economy over the period 2004Q1-2019Q4 in terms of economic performance. The concepts of half- life and catching-up hypotheses are conducted to find the economic distance among the municipalities. The results indicate that the municipalities with the lowest number of people per staff, commonly converge to the group mean (Morphou and Iskele). Nicosia and Kyrenia municipalities are less productive than the other municipalities, but Famagusta municipality needs less years than Kyrenia and Nicosia to catch-up the leader one (Morphou municipality). The results also suggest that one of the most important reasons for being less productive is related with over-employment and non-qualified workers, so municipalities need to come up with a new strategy to recruit qualified staff for the most appropriate position. The second one stems from their activities which covered by a grant that the municipalities receive from the central government.</p> 2022-11-02T08:38:18Central Europe Standard Time ##submission.copyrightStatement## Impact of the Public Administration Reform on the Economic Development of the Western Balkans 2022-11-25T08:49:24Central Europe Standard Time Goran Jovetić Gordana Djurović Zorica Kalezić <p>The aim of this paper is to research the impact of a public administration reform on the economic development of the Western Balkan (WB) countries. The research covers a ten-year period (2009 – 2019), and is conducted on a sample of 19 countries (so called New EU Member States, Turkey and 6 countries from the WB). The paper attempts to quantify the effect that the public administration reform has on the two variables of economic development, namely the real GDP Growth Rate and Trade Per Capita, in the context of analysis and impact of six governance indicators created by the World Bank, within the WGI (The Worldwide Governance Indicator). In order to prove the hypotheses, we used the dynamic panel method. The results show that there is a significant positive impact of public administration reform in the WB on the GDP growth and trade.</p> 2022-11-02T08:41:17Central Europe Standard Time ##submission.copyrightStatement## Impact of COVID-19 Pandemic on Local Finance and Development Strategies. Case of Urban and Rural Areas in the Mazovia Region 2022-11-25T08:51:24Central Europe Standard Time Marta Mackiewicz Mariusz-Jan Radło Ewelina Szczech-Pietkiewicz <p>The paper aims to investigate the economic consequences of the COVID-19 pandemic through the prism of local finances in the Mazovia region. The rationale for this research comes from the observation that lockdown and a reduced economic activity affect revenues of local budgets. Thus, a question arises about the effect of decreased local budgets on local expenditure and the implementation of development strategies. The method applied was a survey carried out on a sample consisting of all the local administrative units (LAU) in the region. The results show that the "scissors effect" of rising expenditure and falling revenues applies to all the LAU. The analysis provides evidence that the characteristics of urban and rural LAU have consequences not only for their resilience against the COVID-19 pandemic but influence their strategies and actions adopted in response to the crisis.</p> 2022-11-02T08:46:28Central Europe Standard Time ##submission.copyrightStatement## Joint Production of Public Services in Shrinking Rural Areas in Germany: Results of Exploratory Research 2022-11-25T08:53:31Central Europe Standard Time Benjamin Friedländer Norbert Kersting <p>The demographic development in most German rural areas raises major questions for the future of public service provision, especially with regard to the performance of different organisational arrangements and their joint action and governance for achieving publicly-desired outcomes. The international literature on collaborative approaches to public service provision is flourishing. However, little attention has been paid to the contribution of public economy and non-state stakeholders to solve these problems. Facing this gap, the exploratory study aims to analyse and discuss the role that civil society, municipally-owned housing companies and public savings banks play in delivering public services and implementing public policies in shrinking rural areas in Germany. By focusing on the scope, drivers, benefits but also limitations of these arrangements, the study helps us in understanding cautious patterns in this field of research and addresses some lessons and perspectives.</p> 2022-11-02T08:49:00Central Europe Standard Time ##submission.copyrightStatement## Entrepreneurial Activities Performed by Local Governments in Poland – The Context of the Entrepreneurial Ecosystem Concept 2022-11-25T08:56:00Central Europe Standard Time Anna Mempel-Śnieżyk Niki Derlukiewicz Tomasz Pilewicz Małgorzata Godlewska <p>The paper explores the activities offered by local governments in the entrepreneurial ecosystem concept perspective. This paper aims to determine the role of the local governments’ assistance in the dependencies between institutions supporting entrepreneurship and new enterprises. The activities, such as (i) intentional activities, (ii) favourable conditions for the local entrepreneurial environment, and (iii) the local governments’ relations with local entrepreneurs have been distinguished. To confirm the theoretically assumed three-factor structure, confirmatory factor analysis was performed. In the course of the study, the Spearman’s correlation and structural modelling methods were applied. The results showed the relation between the local governments’ activities and the entrepreneurship indicators at the local level. Additionally, the impact of the institutions supporting entrepreneurship on the number of newly registered entities, with a mediating role of favourable conditions for the local entrepreneurial environment and the local governments’ relations with local entrepreneurs, was presented.</p> 2022-11-02T08:51:42Central Europe Standard Time ##submission.copyrightStatement## Decision-making of Top Management and Internal Audit on the Issue of Archiving Documentation in Companies Founded by Local Government Units in the Republic of Serbia 2022-11-25T08:57:50Central Europe Standard Time Sonja Tomas-Miskin Jelena Vitomir Slobodan Popović Goran Vitomir <p>This study emphasizes the importance of document archiving. The aim of the study is to point out the importance of secure archiving of documentation. The authors conducted a representative survey in 147 companies, which represents about 20% of public utility companies whose founders are local self-government units in the Republic of Serbia. They found that there are significant differences in terms of security of archiving between the so-called electronic archiving and classic form of archiving of documentation in companies. The main conclusion reached by the authors of the study would be that there are far fewer errors in the electronic archiving of documentation compared to the classic way of archiving documentation in companies. After the T-test, the authors found that there are significant differences in terms of security ratings that come from the ratings of top management and employees in internal audit (p = .000) in terms of secure archiving of documentation. The authors also point out that greater security of archiving documentation is achieved in companies that have introduced electronic archiving of documentation.</p> 2022-11-02T08:53:50Central Europe Standard Time ##submission.copyrightStatement## What Contributes to the Formation of Stable Collaborative Water Governance? A Fuzzy Set Qualitative Comparative Analysis of Chinese Cases 2022-11-25T09:05:59Central Europe Standard Time Ge Xin <p>Collaborative governance is a crucial approach to addressing cross-jurisdictional environmental problems. With the ample water resources across China, lack of coordination for water governance however has become a severe barrier to regional development. Taking the largest freshwater lake in east China – Lake Tai as an example and drawing upon intergovernmental collective action theory, issue salience theory, and resource dependence theory, this research explores how the combination of contextual factors and intra-alliance factors contribute to the formation of stable collaborative water governance. Specifically, we applied a fuzzy set qualitative comparative analysis to examine the 32 collaborative water governance cases in Lake Tai basin from the year of 2010 to 2019, and found that the presence of governmental intervention is a necessary condition for shaping collaborative water governance in China, and two configurational pathways represent the issue-oriented model and path-dependence model, which provides possible insights for promoting inter-governmental collaborative governance in the future.</p> 2022-11-02T08:56:03Central Europe Standard Time ##submission.copyrightStatement## Flypaper Effect in the Republic of Serbia 2022-11-25T09:08:01Central Europe Standard Time Siniša Mali Lenka Maličká <p>The main objective of this study is to examine whether the local self-governments (LSG) in Serbia spend their budget as predicted by the flypaper effect (FPE). The presence of the FPE was estimated using the panel regression applied to the population of 166 Serbian LSGs for the period 2011-2019. Similar to findings in other country-specific empirical studies, the results of regression analysis robustly confirmed the presence of the FPE. The occurrence of the FPE is dependent on the level of LSGs’ development and changes in fiscal policy associated with the recent fiscal consolidation. The results obtained indicate that the allocation policy of unconditional transfers in Serbia is rule-based and allegedly free from political factors. The hypothesis that was examined tried to find out whether the overall presence of the FPE is driven by the fiscal illusion deriving from the institutional context of the Serbian LSG public finance despite transparent system of transfers allocation. To the best our knowledge, this is the first empirical study that examined the FPE in Serbia.</p> 2022-11-02T08:57:57Central Europe Standard Time ##submission.copyrightStatement## Being an Efficient Smart City in Croatia: The View of Citizens 2022-11-25T09:10:23Central Europe Standard Time Antonija Srok Jelena Jardas Antonić Matea Borković <p>Nowadays, many discussions revolve around the topic of smart, technology-based cities. Local self-governments need to consider smart city factors if they want to provide quality services to their citizens and implement policies effectively. Therefore, in this paper, we focus on smart cities, but look at them from a different perspective - from the citizens' point of view. In each of the 25 largest cities in Croatia, we asked citizens to rate their satisfaction with the dimensions of smart cities and rank them in terms of importance. We used the results in the AHP analysis to rank the cities according to their smart city performance from the citizens' perspective. In addition, we use DEA, to study the efficiency of the use of the city budget for projects related to the development of a smart city. While we present the high-ranking Croatian cities as examples of good practices, we also emphasize the efficient use of budgets by the not so high-ranking cities and their realization of investment needs in this area. Our study contributes to the understanding of smart cities from the citizens' perspective and expands the knowledge base on the development of smart cities in Croatia.</p> 2022-11-02T09:00:18Central Europe Standard Time ##submission.copyrightStatement## Innovation in Public Services: The Case of Moroccan Government 2022-11-25T09:12:21Central Europe Standard Time Hanane Benaddi Yaâcoub Hannad Elyoussfi El Kettani Mohamed Askour <p>Public service innovation and New public Management’ are two domains of research that have been developed independently. However, they share a common concept that is ‘Public service’. To improve the efficiency of public services, understanding the public value delivered to citizens is essential. Business model innovation allows evaluating the value created for consumers and pinpoint exactly citizen’s needs and expectations. This paper presents a new approach to innovate public services and identify opportunities to enhance public service delivery. The 5W1H business model allows to analyze public services, how are they created, who are their consumers, when and where are they provided and what public value are delivered. We support our argument with findings from a study conducted by the Moroccan Ministry of Administration and Public Service Reform. The results indicate that the classification of public services according to the public value is a baseline for improving the process of their delivery and the need for serious reflection to strengthen the digital transformation of administrative procedures.</p> 2022-11-02T09:02:29Central Europe Standard Time ##submission.copyrightStatement## Central-Local Government Coordination During the COVID-19 Response: A Case Study Analysis of Jordan and Morocco 2022-11-25T09:14:50Central Europe Standard Time Wa'ed Alshoubaki Aziza Zemrani <p>This study seeks to understand the coordination of national and subnational governments in response to the COVID-19 pandemic in Jordan and Morocco. Utilizing a case study analysis strategy, this study provides a better understanding of the governmental response to the COVID-19 crisis in light of the relationship between the national and subnational levels of government. The examination of the two case studies, namely, Jordan and Morocco, was conducted through a document analysis strategy that implemented the READ approach. The results illustrate that pandemic management occurred through coordination between the central government, which is responsible for formulating response policies, and the subnational government, which is responsible for implementing these policies. Jordan formulated and institutionalized its response to the pandemic through the activation of Defense Law No. 13 of 1992. The governorates and municipalities worked together to implement the defense orders. Similarly, the government in Morocco established national response policies, and the local and territorial levels were responsible for executing these policies.</p> 2022-11-02T09:04:27Central Europe Standard Time ##submission.copyrightStatement## Women’s Representation in County Assemblies: A Study on Kenya’s Elected County Assembly Members 2022-11-25T09:17:12Central Europe Standard Time Kyung Deuk Kwon Francis Wyckliffe Otieno <p>&nbsp;Local governments offer opportunities for diverse groups of women in political participation, as well as their roles as local leaders in ensuring sustainable development. Within the context of gender mainstreaming, this study examined how the backgrounds of women such as social status, pre-elective occupations, age, educational background and religion, contributed to their access to legislative roles within Kenya’s county assemblies. Using the 2013 and 2017 election data, results showed that of the five variables, the religious background of women had the lowest effect on their election and legislative participation. Though there are constitutional and institutional structures put in place to promote women participation in elective politics, there’s still need for enhanced awareness on the legislative and decision-making role of elected women leaders. This study contributes to a comprehensive view of women’s political participation and a narrative shift from national to local decision-making power, which is a critical level of governance.</p> 2022-11-02T09:07:06Central Europe Standard Time ##submission.copyrightStatement## Political Business Cycle in Local Governments in Transition and Developing Economies. Literature Review and Empirical Study for Poland 2022-11-25T09:20:09Central Europe Standard Time Beata Zofia Filipiak Krzysztof K. Kluza <p>Theory of political business cycles in democratic systems indicates that politicians have an incentive to operate with different economic instruments to acquire voters or secure re-election. Such phenomena also take place on the local government level, with incumbents manipulating the scale of expenditures, investments, or the amount of debt raised before elections. In this article, we focus on the analysis of local government investment as it is one of the most flexible parts of the budget so there is a strong incentive to use it as an election support instrument. Based on the panel data for the three full electoral cycles in Poland, we check the existence of the relationship between investment budget sizes and the phase of the electoral cycle. The results of the analysis show that even as a single explanatory variable, the election cycle is a significant factor explaining the behaviour of local public investments. It causes fluctuations of local investments by over 20% around their average level. This confirms the existence of a strong political budget cycle in Polish local governments. As this also provides evidence of political rent seeking, our findings provide a general rationale for limiting the number of office terms for incumbents in local authorities.</p> 2022-11-02T09:09:56Central Europe Standard Time ##submission.copyrightStatement## Evaluation of Key R&D Areas in the Context of Economic Development: Evidence from Self-governing Regions of the Czech Republic 2022-11-25T09:22:11Central Europe Standard Time Renata Halásková Martina Halásková Václav Friedrich <p>The paper deals with crucial areas of research potential in regional conditions of the 14 Czech self-governing regions in years 2015 and 2020. For the analysis 11 indicators of research and development (R&amp;D) are applied by use of multivariate methods. The results showed internal similarities of the Czech regions by the three created R&amp;D factors in 2020. We investigated the relationship in Czech regions between the created factors of research potential (in the public sector, the business enterprise sector, potential human resources) on one side and economic level of regions and total R&amp;D expenditures as percentage of regional GDP on the other side. The achieved findings from self-governing Czech regions can be a valuable source for creators of regional R&amp;D strategies in the Czech Republic.</p> 2022-11-02T00:00:00Central Europe Standard Time ##submission.copyrightStatement## The Central Government Fund for Local Investments as an Instrument of Clientelist Politics Towards the Local Government in Poland – The Position of the German Minority in the Opolskie Province 2022-11-25T09:24:23Central Europe Standard Time Bartosz Czepil <p>The objective of the paper is to analyse the distribution of funds from the Central Government Fund for Local Investments (CGFLI) granted in the years 2020-2021 to the communes and districts of the Opolskie province in which the German minority (GM) rules in local governments. A hypothesis has been formulated that communes and districts governed by the GM are not treated as neutral communes in the same sense as non-partisan communes governed by local government officials who do not represent national political parties, and such communes and districts may thus face discrimination in the distribution of funds, similar to what has been established in the case of the opposition "Senate Bloc". The hypothesis has proven to be accurate. Compared to non-partisan local governments, GM local governments are less likely to be supported and receive less in relative terms under the two CGFLI competition tranches. GM local governments are also in a worse position than Senate bloc local governments.</p> 2022-11-02T09:14:49Central Europe Standard Time ##submission.copyrightStatement## Financial Autonomy of the Local Self-governments in the Countries of the Visegrad Group in the Context of the European Charter of Local Self-government 2022-11-25T09:28:58Central Europe Standard Time Ádám Pál Michal Radvan <p>The authors of the paper aim to provide a comparative insight into the financial autonomy of local self-governments in four Central European countries: Hungary, Slovakia, Poland, and the Czech Republic. The topic is presented through the relevant provisions of the European Charter of Local Self-Government, the only legally binding multilateral treaty in Europe addressing local self-governance. As all the four examined states are parties to the document, the authors used the outputs of its monitoring process to analyze the situation under all the relevant provisions of the Charter, paragraph by paragraph. Considering that certain provisions of the Charter enjoy a superior position compared to the others (core provisions), the authors formulated a hypothesis according to which, in the area of financial autonomy, these core provisions are the most problematic ones in terms of their successful implementation. Using analytical, statistical, and comparative methods, the authors concluded that the hypothesis was confirmed, as most shortcomings were identified in the fields covered by these provisions, meaning that besides the lack of sufficient resources, the lack of ability to influence the amount of these resources is also often present in the studied countries.</p> 2022-11-02T00:00:00Central Europe Standard Time ##submission.copyrightStatement## EU Recovery Plans, Inclusive Knowledge Economy and Overcoming Regional Disparities 2022-11-25T09:31:47Central Europe Standard Time Matjaz Nahtigal <p>The EU has adopted the Recovery and Resilience Facility (RRF) as the key instrument help to ensure that the EU, its member states, regions and local communities emerge stronger and more resilient from the pandemic crisis. Its main goal is to achieve climate neutrality by 2050, and it sets Europe on a path of digital transition, creating jobs and spurring growth in the process. The EU recovery plans should be seen as an opportunity not merely to address the post-pandemic health, social, economic and financial crisis – further exacerbated by the ongoing war in Ukraine – but primarily to develop a more inclusive and innovative institutional framework for European economies with more resilient local communities, small and medium sized firms, and high-quality public services across the EU. New forms of participation, more policy space, tools and instruments to support local and regional development strategies are necessary to establish an overall environment more hospitable to sustainable and inclusive development. Diversity of European local communities and European regions at different levels of development require tailored-made approach to realize their development potential. Institutional innovations, such as the regional public venture funds, may be the key to overcome regional disparities and build regional knowledge economies. The positive experience with the recovery, sustainable transition and inclusive knowledge economy across the European Union may serve as an important experience and encouragement to many other parts of the world, coping with the post-pandemic recovery, implementation of the Sustainable Development Goals and inclusive development.</p> 2022-11-02T09:19:05Central Europe Standard Time ##submission.copyrightStatement## Legal and Political Methods of Weakening the Local Government in the Second Polish Republic After 1926 2022-11-25T09:33:54Central Europe Standard Time Jacek Wałdoch <p>The subject of the article is the issue of strengthening the position of the government administration in relation to local government in the Second Polish Republic. The author presented the evolution of the legal basis for the local self-government system, starting with the constitution of 1921, in which there was a mention of "extensive local self-government". Subsequent acts on this subject come from the period after 1926, when a party supporting Józef Piłsudski came to power as a result of a coup d'état. The crowning moment of the systemic changes was the constitution of 1935, in which the issue of local self-government was almost omitted. The article is enriched with opinions of representatives of the legal doctrine.</p> 2022-11-02T09:21:02Central Europe Standard Time ##submission.copyrightStatement##