Lex localis - Journal of Local Self-Government 2019-08-31T18:49:33Central Europe Daylight Time Editorial Office Open Journal Systems <p align="justify">Lex localis - Journal of Local Self-Government is an international journal for the study of the politics, administration and management of local affairs published four times a year (in January, April, July, and October) by Institute for Local Self-Government Maribor (Slovenia). Articles appearing in Lex localis - Journal of Local Self-Government are abstracted and indexed in Social Sciences Citation Index (SSCI), CSA Worldwide Political Science Abstracts, Current Geographical Publications, CSA PAIS International, Academic's OneFile (Gale), ERIH Plus, International Political Science Abstracts, ProQuest, Scopus, International Bibliography of Periodical Literature (IBZ), International Bibliography of the Social Sciences (IBSS). Journal Metrics 2016: Source Normalized Impact per Paper (SNIP): 0,52 (Q2) (Law 212/488, Public Administration 68/112), 2015 SCImago Journal Rank (SJR): 0,25 (Q2) (Law 226/505), ISI Impact Factor: 0,714 (Q3) (Political Science 107/165, Public Administration 37/47).</p> Constitutional and Legal Foundations for Local Self-Government Law-making: Does the Slovak Republic Need More Precise Legal Regulation? 2019-08-31T17:11:51Central Europe Daylight Time Jaroslav Mihálik Bystrík ramel <p>The law-making process is one of the extremely important forms of local self-government activities. By means of law-making, local self-government regulates the conditions of life and behaviour of the local community living in a particular area of local self-government. Through law-making, therefore, local self-government can significantly interfere with an individual's life. The paper is focused on the analysis of the current legal regulation of the local self-government law-making process in the Slovak Republic and the identification of its weak points. The authors examine the results of control activities of authorities performing the review of constitutionality and legality of local law-making. On this basis, we submit a number of suggestions and incentives for changing the current legal regulation of law-making competence of local self-government.</p> 2019-07-24T16:43:35Central Europe Daylight Time ##submission.copyrightStatement## Failure Management Approaches and Public Service Quality: Empirical Evidence from Serbia 2019-08-31T17:14:28Central Europe Daylight Time Nemanja Milanović Miloš Milosavljević Nela Milošević <p>Failure of public services has been a vividly debated topic in both theory and practice of public administration. Surprisingly, only a handful of scholarly papers have empirically examined the failure management practices and provided any useful tools and techniques for managing the failure. The aim of this paper is to explore the ways in which central government administration manages the failure and how it affects the quality of their services. The study collected 568 responses from the political appointees and career civil servants across a wide range of ministries and central government agencies in the Republic of Serbia. The results indicate that the analysis of failure plays a pivotal role in the learning process and ultimately leads to the improvement of public service quality.</p> 2019-07-24T16:44:34Central Europe Daylight Time ##submission.copyrightStatement## Potentials for Improving Financial Management Capacities in Serbian Public Administration 2019-08-31T17:16:25Central Europe Daylight Time Željko Spasenić Sladjana Benkovic Veljko Dmitrović <p>In the process of joining the European Union the Republic of Serbia is expected to meet the requirements that are deemed to be universally accepted norms of social and government systems of member states. As part of that process, Serbia’s public administration, much less efficient than that of member states, is being transformed with a view to attaining the expected efficiency level. The aim of this paper is to give an overview of the existing capacities of civil servants in the Republic of Serbia in the area of financial management and the potentials for their improvement. The paper is based on the results of a research conducted under the CBHE ERAMSUS+ project, on a sample of 231 civil servants in the Serbian public administration engaged on budgeting, financial control and internal audit in the period March – May 2017. Authors of the paper were actively involved in the project.</p> 2019-07-24T00:00:00Central Europe Daylight Time ##submission.copyrightStatement## Fiscal Decentralization and Efficiency of Regional Government in Croatia: A Data Envelopment Analysis 2019-08-31T17:17:52Central Europe Daylight Time Sabina Hodžić Adis Muharemović <p>To determine the efficiency of regional and local government public functions, the most used method in the empirical analysis is data envelopment analysis. This paper reviews 20 counties as part of regional government units in Croatia as well as the relationship between efficiency scores and exogenous determinants in the 2009-2016 period. The results of our analysis show that, among exogenous determinants, only the annual registered unemployed rate and annual average wage for full time jobs are statistically significant.</p> 2019-07-24T00:00:00Central Europe Daylight Time ##submission.copyrightStatement## Decentralisation Processes in Montenegrin Public Administration: Challenges of Health System 2019-08-31T17:21:57Central Europe Daylight Time Ivan Radević Miro Haček <p>The paper aims to assess the organisational design of the public health care system of Montenegro from the organisational and legal standpoint, and in particular from the position of a likelihood for the system decentralisation through an inclusion of local self-governments with the goal to increase the quality of health care. The qualitative analysis is based on the method of case study. The research covers the analysis of Montenegrin legislation, and in particular Montenegrin and European regulations and strategic documents that refer to local self-governments and health care system. Individual and group interviews were conducted with top executives in the Ministry of Health of Montenegro, Health Insurance Fund of Montenegro and Ministry of Public Administration. The research shows that Montenegrin health system is predominantly centralised, and lacks substantial involvement by local self-government in health care related services. The need for a stronger participation of municipalities (and private entities) is indicated, for the purpose of achieving a stronger level of quality of the health care services.</p> 2019-07-25T10:24:24Central Europe Daylight Time ##submission.copyrightStatement## Constitutional and Legal Foundations for Local Self-Government in Montenegro 2019-08-31T17:24:06Central Europe Daylight Time Marina Jovicevic <p>This paper discusses the arrangement of local self-government in Montenegro by the 2007 Constitution of Montenegro and a number of laws, in order to examine the contribution to the strenghtening of local self-government and compliance with the standards of the Council of Europe. Although required by those standards, the constitutional recognition of certain significant issues and principles of local self-government has been unaddressed, leading to failure in setting limitations to the legislature and in securing local self-government’ full autonomy. The regulation of such issues is left to the legislature, which sets a solid basis for both exercising and developing local self-government powers. However, in order to continue the process of decentralization, we believe that it is necessary to strengthen local self-government at the constitutional level. The paper points to some possible improvements.</p> 2019-07-25T11:38:16Central Europe Daylight Time ##submission.copyrightStatement## Transport Infrastructure and Economic Growth: From Diminishing Returns to International Trade 2019-08-31T17:27:39Central Europe Daylight Time Sonja lander Marko Ogorevc <p>The economic effects of transport infrastructure have been at the forefront of economic research and development policies for the last three decades, after the estimates in the early studies uncovered transport investment as one of the main drivers of economic growth.<span class="Apple-converted-space">&nbsp; </span>This is still widely accepted, and the aim of this paper is to challenge this view by analyzing 657 estimates from 48 production function studies. Our results confirm a positive yet small average output elasticity of transport network, but further add to the literature by showing that the marginal returns of transport infrastructure have been falling since 1950s, especially in the USA and China, while the output elasticities in Europe have been stable but low throughout the entire period. Furthermore, the paper reviews studies on the effeets of new roads on firm-level performance, and concludes, based on the evidence of small marginal returns of transport infrastructure on both macro- and micro-economic level, that a a much more targeted approach to public investment in transport infrastructure is needed, at least in the developed countries.</p> 2019-07-25T11:47:17Central Europe Daylight Time ##submission.copyrightStatement## The Transformation of the Municipal Social Benefit System in Hungary in the Last Decade 2019-08-31T17:29:31Central Europe Daylight Time István Hoffman Andrea Szatmári <p>The municipalities play a significant role in the field of<span class="Apple-converted-space">&nbsp; </span>means-tested social benefits. Additional income benefits are primarily provided by local governments and these autonomous bodies have responsibility for several income replacement allowances. The Hungarian municipalities have strong social powers and duties, but their role is in a permanent transformation. The strongly decentralised system established in the early 1990s has been since centralised.<span class="Apple-converted-space">&nbsp; </span>The result is a new model, a mixed system having evolved after 2015. The income replacement benefits have been centralised and the additional income allowances have become more decentralised. In this article, the impacts of this reform are analysed and it may be stated, that the aims of the legislators have only been partly fulfilled. The centralisation of the income replacement allowances has not significantly transformed the former accessibility, a satisfying accessibility was provided by the former, local-based model, as well. The decentralisation of the additional income benefits has widened the gap between the municipalities which have different resources. This gap is relatively significant related to the housing benefits.</p> 2019-07-25T11:54:22Central Europe Daylight Time ##submission.copyrightStatement## From Top to Down or Central to Local: Transformation of the Neighborhood Units as a Policy Tool of Presidential System in Turkey 2019-08-31T17:33:05Central Europe Daylight Time Uğur Sadioğlu Eser Ergönül <p>In this study, neighborhood administration and mukhtarship which have grown in importance in recent years in Turkey are analyzed in light of the discussions on presidential system. President of the Republic paid great importance to the mukhtars during legislative efforts for presidential system and often hold meetings with the mukhtars. Discourses coming to forefront during these meetings imply the levels that mukhtarship and neighborhood administration will evolve. In this study, speeches of the President during meetings with mukhtars were subject to discourse analysis to draw conclusions. In addition, interviews were made with mukhtars from different provinces and the results of the research were supported by these findings. Mukhtarship can be regarded to have evolved as an important policy tool from top to down or central to local in Turkey which is on the edge of a new centralization process in particular.</p> 2019-07-25T12:34:31Central Europe Daylight Time ##submission.copyrightStatement## Constitutional Aspects of Local Taxes in the Slovak Republic and in the Czech Republic 2019-08-31T17:36:59Central Europe Daylight Time Anna Romanova Michal Radvan Johan Schweigl <p>The main aim of the paper is to analyze the constitutional backgrounds of the local taxes´ legal regulation, assessment, and collection in the Slovak Republic and the Czech Republic. The paper starts with the general constitutional regulation of taxes and continues with the critical analyses of local taxes´ regulation and application in both countries. It follows the legal power of legal norms, starting with the international aspects – the European Charter of Local Self-Government, continuing with the constitutional issues and finishing with the statutory regulation of local taxes. The first part of the hypothesis that even if the constitutional regulation in these countries is very different and gives different opportunities for the local taxes adoptions both in national Parliaments and in local councils, the practice in both countries is very similar, was (with a small difference in the actual use of given possibilities to adjust the real property tax revenues by the municipalities, which speaks in favour of the Slovak ones compared to the Czech) confirmed. However, the second part of the hypothesis that in both countries local self-government units do have adequate powers to impose and collect local taxes was rejected. In the conclusion, the comparison between the Czech Republic and the Slovak Republic is made and possible changes <em>de lege ferenda</em> are presented.</p> 2019-07-31T22:52:56Central Europe Daylight Time ##submission.copyrightStatement## The Significance of Selected Socio-economic Factors for the Achieving of Fiscal Sustainability of Local Government Units (LGUs) in Poland 2019-08-31T17:40:26Central Europe Daylight Time Katarzyna Aleksandra Wojtowicz <p>The article attempts to assess the impact of selected economic and social factors on the fiscal sustainability of 241 urban municipalities in Poland in 2004-2016. The article uses the econometric modelling of panel data. The analysis revealed that most of the variables had a negative impact on local fiscal performance. The main reason for this is the low fiscal autonomy of Polish cities and the strong dependency on grants from the central budget, as well as the high share of unfunded mandates. This situation means that cities are particularly sensitive to the external environment, while at the same time are deprived of fiscal stabilisation instruments allowing them to counteract this problem. It can be an important obstacle to achieving sustainable economic development.</p> 2019-07-25T12:57:08Central Europe Daylight Time ##submission.copyrightStatement## Understanding Political Entrepreneurship in Local Government Administration – a Contextual Framework 2019-08-31T17:42:27Central Europe Daylight Time Albin Olausson Petra Svensson <p>It has been argued that political entrepreneurship is playing an increased role for public organizations and play a vital role in local government organizations. Political entrepreneurship has previously been studied from the motivations and actions of the individual entrepreneur. We argue that in order to understand why political entrepreneurship occurs in local public administration, these aspects are not enough. Instead, we need to consider entrepreneurship as situated, and analyse contextual conditions which form institutional demands for political entrepreneurship. A tentative framework is presented, which distinguish conditions coming from reformed organizational setting and conditions coming from new policy challenges. Finally, we conclude that the character of the conditions and thus the institutional demands directs political entrepreneurship towards either value-generative or collaborative entrepreneurship.</p> 2019-07-25T13:16:37Central Europe Daylight Time ##submission.copyrightStatement## Analysis of Regional Health Plans as Enactments of National Health Policy 2019-08-31T17:44:19Central Europe Daylight Time Jana Rozmarinová <p>The article deals with strategic documents created at the regional level in the context of their relevance to the implementation of the national health policy and their relevance to the solution of the inequalities among regions in access to primary care. The aim of this contribution is to map and evaluate the activity of regions in terms of their conceptual activities related to the establishment of regional policy objectives for the 2010-2015 period. The implementation of the national health policy (i.e. the “Health 21” and “Health 2020” programs) is examined in the context of the regional conceptual activities. The obtained results show that the conceptual activities of regions in the area related to health care differ significantly. While some regional development programs devote only a few pages to healthcare issues, other regions create comprehensive concepts of health care. With the measurement of inequalities, we indicate the regions that are underserved with healthcare services, of which only the Ústí nad Labem region shows the plan to dealt with this disadvantage in its strategic health plan.<span class="Apple-converted-space">&nbsp;</span></p> 2019-07-25T13:28:42Central Europe Daylight Time ##submission.copyrightStatement## Measuring Efficiency at the Regional Level: A Data Envelopment Analysis Approach 2019-08-31T17:46:03Central Europe Daylight Time Suncana Slijepcevic <p>European countries have been continuously under the pressure to improve public balances and efficiency of public spending. Economic crisis which started during 2007 weakened public finances at the state and local level in countries all over the world. In Croatia local government budgets are still below the pre-crisis level in many local government units. This paper empirically examines efficiency of public expenditures at the regional level. Performance has been investigated by developing a composite indicator of output. Spending efficiency at the regional level was analysed using Data Envelopment Analysis methodology. Results suggest that there are large differences at the regional level in using resources to provide public services. The results show that the local government units in the least efficient county should on average decrease their expenses by 55 percent, while achieving the same performance to become efficient.</p> 2019-07-25T00:00:00Central Europe Daylight Time ##submission.copyrightStatement## Fiscal Decentralization in the Slovak Republic: Revenues and Expenditures 2019-08-31T17:47:20Central Europe Daylight Time Lukáš Cíbik Matúš Meluš <p>The aim of our article is to identify the development of the financial system of revenues and expenses of territorial self-government created by the application of fiscal decentralization in the conditions of the Slovak Republic during the period 2009-2018. This is based on the international methodology which divides revenue into five areas. The expenditure areas correspond to the classification according to the functional classification and are reported in relative terms. By dividing of Slovak territorial self-government into local and regional level, we will be able to break down the aggregate data reported in international statistics as well as nationwide values of the Slovak Republic. The result of our work is the assessment that local self-government has higher average tax revenues over the period under review, a lower dependence on central government, a wider range of competencies, and higher expenditures.</p> 2019-07-25T13:49:20Central Europe Daylight Time ##submission.copyrightStatement## Bribed into Cooperation: Subsidised Inter-municipal Cooperation in Slovenia 2019-08-31T17:48:20Central Europe Daylight Time Irena Bačlija Brajnik Vladimir Prebilič <p>Due to the extreme heterogeneity of municipal sizes resulting in a number of small municipalities that are struggling to meet regulatory demands and standards, Slovenia should be the poster child for inter-municipal cooperation. This, coupled with the absence of a second level of local government, should make for flourishing inter-municipal cooperation. This article demonstrates how sound arguments for the establishment of inter-municipal cooperation do not always achieve favourable results – as in a vibrant and productive web of inter-municipal dialogue and cooperation. It was only after significant governmental subsidies were implemented in Slovenia that the municipalities initiated a cooperation process; however, that process only extended to subsidised tasks. The results of the empirical analyses show that a bottom-up process might take too long a time, while a local government (legal) framework may inhibit cooperation due to the fear of losing authority over municipal tasks.</p> 2019-07-25T14:05:48Central Europe Daylight Time ##submission.copyrightStatement## Classification of Patient Complaints and Developing Patient Complaints Indicators 2019-08-31T17:50:35Central Europe Daylight Time Anka Mohorič Kenda <p>Based on actual patient complaints, we have assessed the suitability of measurable elementary criteria for the selected patient complaint indicator aggregate. These indicators enable, as evidenced by the study, the monitoring and reporting of recorded patient rights violations. The data acquired from processed patient rights violations were obtained through a quantitative study via an electronic complaint form, which constitutes an integral part of the prototype interactive software solution. This solution was used for submitting and monitoring of patients’ complaints on violation of their rights. Based on the data acquired from anonymised cases (71 complaints) and study findings, it was established that the recorded requests for the processing of patient rights violations occur as a result of: (1) inadequate attitude of healthcare professionals (n = 38.03%), (2) inadequate actions by healthcare professionals (n = 57.75%), and (3) later consequences of violations (n = 4.22%). The proposed set of patient complaint indicators can lead to a significant contribution to national patient rights protection policies, to improvement of healthcare quality indicators, and to implementation of measures for better healthcare quality.</p> 2019-07-25T14:29:13Central Europe Daylight Time ##submission.copyrightStatement## How to Create a Successful Regional Startup Ecosystem: A Policy-making Analysis 2019-08-31T18:18:09Central Europe Daylight Time Ales Pustovrh Marko Jaklič Domen Bole Blaž Zupan <p>The paper analyses regional startup ecosystems in South-East Europe and policy measures implemented in individual ecosystems. It shows that different startup ecosystems have different levels of support measures and different levels of success in creating, growing and retaining local startups and attracting startups from other regions. Results show that policy-makers can help create attractive ecosystems and thus create business environments that can greatly enhance the attraction of their ecosystem for domestic startup and attract foreign startups. If successful, this can result in a virtuous circle of constantly increasing attractiveness of a regional startup ecosystem.</p> 2019-07-25T14:57:48Central Europe Daylight Time ##submission.copyrightStatement## Regional Development Agencies within the Governance Structures for Regional Development in the Countries of the Former Yugoslavia 2019-08-31T18:30:27Central Europe Daylight Time Tatjana Jovanić <p>Regional development agencies (RDAs) have been established in the countries of the former Yugoslavia, where the development of economically underdeveloped areas primarily targeted the federal republics and autonomous provinces. The role of RDAs has been underpinned by the EU due to significance of the cohesion policy for new EU member states (Slovenia and Croatia), the process of association and negotiations on regional policy and the coordination of structural instruments for candidate and potential candidate countries. The paper elaborates on whether and to what extent the RDAs are expected to enhance national administrative capacities for programming, coordination and implementation of financial assistance. On the basis of a normative analysis of policy documents, relevant legislation and desk-research of the core competences and activities of the RDAs, the paper aims to portray the institutional arrangements for regional development, in particular the role of RDAs in the promotion of productivity and growth. Although regional partnerships have emerged as new collaborative governance structures, the principle of partnership is not fully respected as a result of strong centralization, the multitude of actors with overlapping roles and the underdeveloped systemic communication with stakeholders.</p> 2019-07-25T15:13:27Central Europe Daylight Time ##submission.copyrightStatement## Local Governments and Political Question Doctrine in Hungary 2019-08-31T18:33:59Central Europe Daylight Time Janos Fazekas <p>The main aim of this paper is to investigate a quite unexamined area: the relationship between political question doctrine and local governments in Hungary. The research focuses on the decisions of Hungarian courts and the Constitutional Court made on this matter. The paper takes under investigation some local governmental acts which have not been reviewed by any court. The main purpose of the research is to find out whether it is possible to take local governmental acts under efficient judicial review in Hungary?</p> 2019-07-25T15:21:42Central Europe Daylight Time ##submission.copyrightStatement## Price Regulation of Public Water Services and the Consequences of its Centralisation for Hungarian Municipalities 2019-08-31T18:34:11Central Europe Daylight Time Krisztina F. Rozsnyai András György Kovács <p>The article demonstrates the role price regulation plays in local networked public services mainly focusing on the sector of public water utility services, but also touching on public waste management services. It investigates how and on what grounds these originally local public services became national public services. The article points out that centralisation of regulation, and in particular of price regulation without a simultaneous, well-considered opening of market cannot be effective, neither does it support the objectives of the Water Framework Directive. The article argues that these characteristics could already in the near future lead to severe failures of service provision necessitating further transformation of the sector.</p> 2019-07-25T15:34:15Central Europe Daylight Time ##submission.copyrightStatement## Local Authorities and the Burden of Safeguarding Human Rights 2019-08-31T18:35:38Central Europe Daylight Time Noemia Rute Peres de Bessa Vilela José Caramelo Gomes <p>The role of Local Self-Government is essential for the promotion and protection of Human Rights. In the EU, regardless of all States being bind to the same sources of law in such matter, the intervention of the local authorities dependents on the functions to those attributed by the National Constitution.<span class="Apple-converted-space">&nbsp; </span>The engagement with of Human Rights of the local authorities may be looked as an obligation, based on legal reasoning that links the local authorities to the broader State to act. Although the primary responsibility for the promotion and protection of human rights rests with the State, the promotion of a human rights culture within local public services plays a vital role in promoting respect for and the realization of human rights in the society.</p> 2019-07-25T16:32:07Central Europe Daylight Time ##submission.copyrightStatement## The Influence of the European H2020 Program on the Development of Regions: The Multiplier Impact of EU Funding in the Regions under Horizon 2020 in NUT III - North 2019-08-31T18:37:19Central Europe Daylight Time Natacha Jesus Silva Diamantino Ribeiro <p>The partnership agreement between the European Union and the Member States for the implementation of the European Structural and Investment Funds for the period 2014 to 2020 is in its final phase. This study analyzes the multiplier impact on regional investment of the European funds made available to the northern region of Portugal - NUTS III, until September 2018 and intends to answer the following questions: What is the amount invested in the regional economy for each euro of support allocated by the EU through the H2020 program, and what is the percentage distribution of community support versus investment per area of intervention?</p> 2019-07-25T16:40:53Central Europe Daylight Time ##submission.copyrightStatement## The Nostalgianomics and Living Preference in Slovakia 2019-08-31T18:49:33Central Europe Daylight Time Mária Murray Svidroňová David Cole Jolana Gubalová <p>The paper is focused on town planning from different point of view thancurrent urban and economic development which stresses the need of building metropolises and smart cities as a cure for urban problems. The paper is a counter-balance to this statement, especially in the conditions of Slovakia. The objective of this paper is to analyse living preferences of 496 respondents and to discuss a new term of nostalgianomics. Nostalgianomics explains that nostalgic sentiment can be used as an economic and creative force, as an incentive for investment, housing and urban planning. Main conclusion proves this statement, most respondents chose a place to live that is less crowded and less urban.<span class="Apple-converted-space">&nbsp;</span></p> 2019-07-25T16:47:52Central Europe Daylight Time ##submission.copyrightStatement##