Preferential Voting: Definition and Classification
There is no single definition for ‘preferential voting’ or ‘preference voting’ since the terms are used for a number of different election systems and groups of such systems. They can be synonymous with the single-transferable vote, the alternative vote, open-list proportional representation, or the group of all ranking methods. This article offers an overview of the various definitions and classifications of preferential voting and other terms used in the literature to describe it. It proposes a common understanding of preferential voting. I suggest that preferentiality ought to be one of the characteristics by which electoral systems are evaluated. All election systems are preferential, though to varying degrees. I offer a classification of numerous electoral schemes according to their preferentiality.
Amy, D. J. (2000) Behind the ballot box: a citizen's guide to voting systems (Westport, Conn.: Praeger).
Anckar, C. (2001) Effects of Electoral Systems: A study of 80 countries. Paper presented at the SNS Seminar in Stockholm, September 28-29, 2001.
Andeweg, R. B. (2005) The Netherlands: The Sanctity of Proportionality, In: Gallagher, M. & Mitchell, P. (eds.) The Politics of Electoral System (Oxford: Oxford University Press), pp. 491-510.
Araújo, C. (2003) Quotas for Women in the Brazilian Legislative System. Paper presented at International IDEA workshop The Implementation of Quotas: Latin American Experiences, Lima, Peru, 23–24 February 2003.
Black, D. (1998) The Theory of Committees and Elections. Rev. 2nd ed. (Boston: Kluwer Academic).
Blais, A. (1988) The classification of electoral systems, European Journal of Political Research, 16(1), pp. 99-110.
Bogdanor, V. (1983) Introduction. In: Bogdanor, V. & Butler D. (eds.) Democracy and Elections: Electoral Systems and their Political Consequences (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press).
Bowen, L. (1999) Mathematics of Voting, In: Bowen, L. (ed.) Introduction to Contemporary Mathematics (Tuscaloosa: University of Alabama), available at: http://www.ctl.ua.edu/math103/ (April 12, 2017).
Bowler, S., Donovan, T. & Brockington, D. (2003) Electoral Reform and Minority Representation: Local Experiments with Alternative Elections (Columbus, OH: Ohio State University Press).
Bowler, S., Farrell, D. M., & Mcallister, I. (1996) Constituency campaigning in parliamentary systems with preferential voting: Is there a paradox?, Electoral Studies, 15(4), pp. 461-476.
Brams, S. (2013) Comparison Voting, In: Brams, S. J., Lucas, W. F. Straffin, P. D. Jr. (eds.) Political and Related Models (New York, Heidelberg, Berlin: Springer), pp. 32-65.
Brams, S. & Fishburn P. (1983) Approval Voting (Boston: Birkhauser).
Cain, B., Ferejohn, J. M. & Fiorina, M. (1987) The Personal Vote: Constitutency Service and Electoral Independence (Campbridge, MA: Harvard University Press).
Carey, J. M. & Shugart, M. S. (1995) Incentives to Cultivate a Personal Vote: a Rank Ordering of Electoral Formulas, Electoral Studies 14(4), pp. 417-439.
Cox, G. W. (1997) Making votes count: strategic coordination in the world's electoral systems (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press).
D’Alimonte, R. (2005) Italy: A Case of Fragmented Bipolarism, In: Gallagher, M. & Mitchell, P. (eds.) The Politics of Electoral System (Oxford: Oxford University Press), pp. 253-276.
Davies, P. J., & Ozolins, A. V. (2001) The 1998 parliamentary election in Latvia, Electoral Studies, 20(1), pp. 135-141.
De Winter, L. (2005) Belgium: Empowering Voters or Party Elites?, In: Gallagher, M. & Mitchell, P. (eds.) The Politics of Electoral System (Oxford: Oxford University Press), pp. 417-432.
Electoral Reform Society (2002) Making the Lords representative :The Electoral Reform Society’s response to “Completing the Reform”, the Government’s White Paper on Lords reform, available at: https://www.squire.law.cam.ac.uk/electronic-resourcesresearch-guidesuk-constitutional-reform/house-lords (March 2, 2017).
Elklit, J. & Roberts, N. S. (1996) A Category of its own?: Four PR two-tier compensatory member electoral systems in 1994, European Journal of Political Research, 30(2), pp. 217-240.
Farrell, D. & Gallagher, M. (1998) Submission to the Independent Commission on the Voting System (London: McDougall Trust).
Farrell, D. M. (2001) Electoral Systems: A Comparative Introduction (Basingstoke: Palgrave).
Farrell, D. M. (2004) Choosing Electoral System: Presentation. British Columbia: Citizens’ Assembly on Electoral Reform.
Farrell, D. M., McAllister, I. (2004) Voter Satisfaction and Electoral Systems: Does Preferential Voting in Candidate-Centered Systems Make A Difference. Center for the Study of Democracy. Paper 04-04, available at: http://repositories.cdlib.org/csd/04-04 (March 12, 2017).
Farrell, D., McAllister, I. (2005) Australia: The Alternative Vote in a Compliant Political Culture, In: Gallagher, M. & Mitchell P. (eds) The Politics of Electoral Systems (Oxford: Oxford University Press).
Farrell, D. M. & Scully, R. (2002a) The Election and Representative Role of MEPs. Draft Paper for the Working Group on Democracy in the EU for the UK Cabinet Office.
Farrell, D. M., Scully, R. (2002b) Electoral System Effects on Parliamentary Representation: The Case of the European Parliament, paper presented at the American Political Science Association Annual Meeting, Boston.
Fishburn, P. C. & Brams, S. J. (1983) Paradoxes of Preferential Voting, Mathematics Magazine, 56(4), pp. 371-397.
Fraenkel, J. (2001) The Alternative Vote System In Fiji: Electoral Engineering Or Ballot-Rigging?, Commonwealth & Comparative Politics, 39(2), pp. 1-31.
Fraenkel, J., & Grofman, B. (2014) The Borda Count and its real-world alternatives: Comparing scoring rules in Nauru and Slovenia, Australian Journal of Political Science, 49(2), pp. 186-205.
Gallagher, M. & Mitchell, P. (eds.) (2005) The Politics of Electoral System (Oxford: Oxford University Press).
Gerring, J., & Thacker, S. C. (2008) A centripetal theory of democratic governance (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press).
Grad, F. (1996) Volitve in volilni sistem [Elections and Electoral System] (Ljubljana: Inštitut za javno upravo).
Grad, F., Kaučič, I. Pogačnik, M. & Tičar, B. (2002) Constitutional System of the Republic of Slovenia: Structural Survey (Trieste: SECLI).
Johnson, J. W. & Wallack, J. S. (2012) Electoral Systems and the Personal Vote, hdl:1902.1/17901, Harvard Dataverse, V1.
Karvonen, L. (2004) Preferential Voting: Incidence and Effects, International Political Science Review, 25(2), pp. 203-226.
Katz, R. S. (1980) A Theory of Parties and Electoral Systems (Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press).
Katz, R. S. (1986) Intraparty Preference Voting, In: Grofman, B. & Lijphart A. (eds.) Electoral Laws and Their Political Consequences (New York: Agathon Press).
Katz, R. S. & Bardi, L. (1980) Preference Voting and Turnover in Italian Parliamentary Elections, American Journal of Political Science, 24(1), pp. 97-114.
Kazamias, G. & Papadimitrou, D. (2002) The Elections in Greece, April 2000, Electoral Studies, 21(4), pp. 649-655.
Kemerling, G. (2011) Definition and Meaning. Philosophy Pages, available at: http://www.philosophypages.com/lg/e05.htm (April 14, 2017).
Lakeman, E. (1974) How Democracies Vote: A Study of Electoral Systems (London: Faber).
Lijphart, A. (1984) Trying to Have the Best of Both Worlds: Semi-Proportional and Mixed Systems, In: Lijphart, A. & Grofman, B. (eds.) Choosing an Electoral System: Issues and Alternatives (New York: Praeger).
Lijphart, A. (1994) Electoral Systems and Party Systems: A study of twenty-seven democracies 1945-1990 (Oxford: Oxford University Press).
Lijphart, A. (1999) Patterns od Democracy: Government forms and performance in thirty-six countries (New Haven: Yale University Press).
Lijphart, A. (2005) Introduction to Electoral Systems, In: Gallagher, M. & Mitchell, P. (eds.) The Politics of Electoral System (Oxford: Oxford University Press), pp. 3-24.
Lijphart, A. & B. Grofman (eds.) (1984) Choosing an Electoral System: Issues and Alternatives (New York: Praeger).
Maddens, B. & Put, G. (2013) Office effects and campaign spending in a semi-open list PR system: The Belgian/Flemish federal and regional elections 1999–2010, Electoral Studies 32(4), pp. 852-863.
Marsh, M. (1985) The Voters Decide? Preferential Voting in European List Systems, European Journal of Political Research, 13(4), pp. 365-378.
Merrill, S. A. (1984) Comparison of Efficiency of Multicandidate Electoral Systems, American Journal of Political Science, 28(1), pp. 23-48.
Nohlen, D. (1984) Changes and Choices in Electoral Systems, In: Lijphart, A. & Grofman B, (Eds.). Choosing an Electoral System: Issues and Alternatives (New York: Praeger).
Nohlen, D. (1989) Wahlrecht und Parteiensystem: Ueber die Politischen Auswirkungen von Wahlsystemen (Opladen: UTB Leske u. Budrich).
Norris, P. (2004) Are Australian MPs in touch with constituents?, Discussion Paper, For the Australian Democratic Audit (Cambridge: Harvard University).
Nurmi, H. (1987) Comparing Voting Systems (Dordrecht, Boston, Lancester, Tokyo: D. Riedel).
Parliament of Australia. (2017) A Glossary of Parliamentary Words, available at: http://www.aph.gov.au/Help/Glossary (March 2, 2017).
Pedersen, M. (1966) Preferential voting in Denmark, Scandinavian Political Studies, 1(A1), pp. 167-187.
Powell, B. G. (2000) Elections as instruments of democracy: majoritarian and proportional visions (New Haven, London : Yale University Press).
Raabe, J. (2016) Principled Success? Do Inclusive, Principle-Guided Choice Processes Improve the Performance of Mixed Electoral Systems?, Journal of Comparative Politics 9(2), pp. 15-36.
Rae, D. W. (1967) The Political Consequences of Electoral Laws (New Haven: Yale University Press).
Reilly, B. (1997) Preferential Voting and Political Engineering: A Comparative Study, Journal of Commonwealth and Comparative Studies, 35(1), pp. 1-19.
Reilly, B. (2001) The Borda count in the real world: the electoral system in the Republic of Nauru (Cantenbury: Macmillan Brown Centre for Pacific Studies, University of Canterbury).
Reilly, B. (2004) The global spread of preferential voting: Australian institutional imperialism?, Australian Journal of Political Science, 39(2), pp. 253-266.
Renwick, A. and Pilet, J. (2016) Faces on the Ballot: The Personalization of Electoral Systems in Europe (Oxford: Oxford University Press).
Reynolds, A. & Reilly, B. (1997) The International IDEA Handbook of Electoral System Design (Stockholm: IDEA).
Rule W. & Zimmermann J. F. (eds.) (1994), Electoral Systems in Comparative Perspective: Their Impact on Women and Minorities (Westport: Greenwood Press).
Saari, D.G. (1985) The Optimal Ranking Method in the Borda Count. IIASA Collaborative Paper. IIASA, Laxenburg, Austria, CP-85-004, available at: http://pure.iiasa.ac.at/2744/ (March 2, 2017).
Saari, D. G. (1994) Geometry of Voting (New York: Springer).
Sartori, G. (1994) Comparative Constitutional Engineering: AN Inquiry into Structures, Incentives and Outcomes (London, Macmillian).
Sartori, G. (1997) Comparative Constitutional Engineering : An Inquiry into Structures, Incentives and Outcomes (2. Ed.) (New York: NYU Press).
Sharman, C., Sayers A. M. & Miragliotta, N. (2002) Trading party preferences: the Australian experience of preferential voting, Electoral Studies 21(4), pp. 543-560.
Shin, M., Jin, Y., Gross, D. A. & Eom, K. (2005) Money matters in party-centered politics: campaign spending in Korean congressional elections, Electoral Studies. 24(1), pp. 85-101.
Shugart, M. S. (1994) Minorities Represented and Unrepresented, In: Rule W. & Zimmermann J. F. (eds.) Electoral Systems in Comparative Perspective: Their Impact on Women and Minorities (Westport: Greenwood Press).
Shugart, M. S. (2001) Electoral "efficiency" and the move to mixed-member systems, Electoral Studies, 20(2), pp. 173-193.
Shugart, M. S. (2005) Comparative Electoral Systems Research : The Maturation of a Field and New Challenges Ahead, In: Gallagher, M. & Mitchell, P. (eds.) The Politics of Electoral System (Oxford: Oxford University Press), pp. 25-55.
Taagepera, R. & Shugart, M. S. (1989) Seats and Votes: The Effects and Determinants of Electoral Systems. (New Haven: Yale University Press).
Taylor, P. J. & Johnston, J. R. (1979) Geography of Elections (London: Penguin).
Toplak, J. (2003) Preferential Vote and Its Use in Slovenia, Lex Localis - Journal of Local Self-Government, 1(2), pp. 15-43.
Toplak, J. (2006) Parliamentary Elections in Slovenia, October 2004, Electoral Studies, 25(4), pp. 825-831.
Van der Kolk, H. (2003) Preferential voting in European local elections. Paper presented at the European Consortium for Political Research Conference – Marburg, 18-21 September 2003.
Wright, J. F. H. (1986) The Australian Experience with Majority-Preferential and Quota-Preferential Systems, In: Grofman, B. & Lijphart A. (eds.) Electoral Laws and their Consequences (New York: Agathon Press).
It is a condition that the authors assign copyright or license the publication rights in their articles, including abstracts, to Institute for Local Self-Government Maribor. This enables us to ensure full copyright protection and to disseminate the article, and of course Journal, to the widest possible readership in print and electronic formats as appropriate. Authors retain many rights under the Institutes' right policies, which can be found at journal.lex-localis.press. Authors are themselves responsible for obtaining permission to reproduce copyright material from other sources.