The Growth of Covert Advertising in the Context of Local Self-Government

  • Tina Tomazic University of Maribor, Institute of Media Communications, Faculty of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, Smetanova 17, SI-2000 Maribor
Keywords: Advertising, Local Self-Government, Newspaper Industry, Print Media


Advertising has become an indispensable component of the modern information society. The advertisers try to attract attention, often with aggressive and unethical advertising; one aspect being covert advertising. Covert advertising means all the texts are paid for in the forms of journalistic texts but they want just the commercial benefit. Our goal was to investigate covert advertising within the Slovenian press, with a mutually comparative analysis of three daily newspapers comparing the years 2008 and 2012, and to study the existing theoretical contributions on covert advertising in the context of local self-government as a key element of democracy, its causes, and the legal order. We determined that the number of such articles is growing each year, and the laws and regulations are absolutely disrespected.

Author Biography

Tina Tomazic, University of Maribor, Institute of Media Communications, Faculty of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, Smetanova 17, SI-2000 Maribor
Assistant Professor


Balasubramanian, S. K. (1994) Beyond advertising and publicity: hybrid messages and public policy issues, Journal of advertising, 23(4), pp. 29-46.
Bivins, T. H. (2004) Mixed Media (New York: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates).
Brezovnik, B. (2015) Contradictions in the Concept of Public Institutes in Slovenian Legislation, Lex Localis- Journal of local self-government, 12(2), pp. 311-327.
Brezovnik, B., Oplotnik, Z. J., & Vojinovic, B. (2015) (De) centralization of public procurement at the local level in the EU, Transylvanian Review of Administrative Sciences, 11(46), pp. 37-52.
Brezovsek, M. (2005) Local democracy II. Implementation of local self-government in Slovenia (Ljubljana: Faculty of Social Sciences).
Brown, R. (1988) Ad Hoc Access: The Regulation of Editorial Advertising on Television and Radio, Yale Law & Policy Review, 6(2), pp. 449-479.
Cameron, G. T. (1994) Does Publicity Outperform Advertising? An Experimental Test of the Third-Party Endorsement, Journal of Public relations research, 6(3), pp. 185-207.
Choi, Y. J., & Lee, J. H. (2013) Primacy of Broadcast News: A Mediation Analysis of Recall, Attitudes, and Voting Intentions, Journal of Applied Communication Research, 41(1), pp. 81-103.
Chung, D. S., & Nah, S. (2013) Media Credibility and Journalistic Role Conceptions: Views on Citizen and Professional Journalists among Citizen Contributors, Journal of Mass Media Ethics, 28(4), pp. 271-288.
Cengic, D. & Mijic, I. (2007) How do the print media reconstruct Croatian path to the EU: Example of Globus, Drustvena istrazivanja, 90-91(4-5), pp. 653-675.
Day, L. A. (2006) Ethics in media communications: cases and controversies (Belmont, TN: Wadsworth Publishing).
Erjavec, K. (2005) Hybrid Public Relations News Discourse, European Journal of Communication, 20(2), pp. 155-179.
Fairclough, N. (1995) Media discourse (London: Arnold).
Fernandez-Martinez, F., Hernandez Garcia, A., & Diaz de Maria, F. (2015) Succeeding metadata based annotation scheme and visual tips for the automatic assessment of video aesthetic quality in car commerce, Expert Systems with Applications, 42(1), pp. 293–305.
Goodman, E. P. (2006) Stealth marketing and editorial integrity, Texas Law review, 2006(85), pp. 83-152.
Goodwin, H. E. (1990) Groping for ethics in journalism (Ames: Iowa State University Press).
Grabnar, A. & Babic, J. (2012) Agreements of Town Twinning as an Opportunity for Development of Slovenian Municipalities: The Case of the Municipality of Maribor, In: Baclija, I. (ed.) Local Democracy IV: Recent problems of Slovenian local self-government (Maribor: Institute for Local Self - Government and Public Procurement), pp. 197-214.
Hackley, C. (2005) Advertising and promotion. Communicating brands (London: Sage publications).
Hill, J. (2016) The British Newspaper Industry (UK: Palgrave Macmillan).
Hoffmann, S. (2011) Anti-consumption as a means to save jobs, European Journal of Marketing, 45(11/12), pp. 1702-1714.
Ilesic, M. (1993) The Law on Protection of Competition with a comment (Ljubljana: Gospodarski vestnik).
Jurisic, J. et al. (2007) Manipulation of readers - covert advertising in Croatian newspapers, Politicka misao, 44(1), pp. 117-135.
Kaikati, A. M., & Kaikati, J. G. (2004) Stealth marketing: How to reach consumers surreptitiously, California Management Review, 46(4), pp. 6-22.
Kavaz, O. (2005) A Comparative Study on Effectiveness of Advertorials versus Traditional Display Advertisements on Consumers (Faragusta: Eastern Mediterranean University).
Kosmelj, B. & Rovan, J. (2007) Statistical inference (Ljubljana: Faculty of Economics).
Krause, M. (2002) Social Representations of Psychological Problems: Contents and Transformations, Social Science Information, 41(4), pp. 602–623.
Lee, L. Y. & Kartika, N. (2014) The influence of individual, family, and social capital factors on expatriate adjustment and performance: The moderating effect of psychology contract and organizational support, Expert Systems with Applications, 41(11), pp. 5483–5494.
Lee, S. T. & Nguyen, H. L. (2013) Explicating the Moral Responsibility of the Advertiser: TARES as an Ethical Model for Fast Food Advertising, Journal of Mass Media Ethics, 28(4), pp. 225-240.
Legan, J. (2004) Naked. Woman reading in Slovenia (Ljubljana: ISH- Faculty for Graduate Humanities).
Martin, D. (2012) Foreign women in Japanese television advertising. Content analyses of a cultural convergence paradigm, European Journal of Marketing, 46(1/2), pp. 157-176.
Mazol, A. (2015) Local self-governance in the Republic of Belarus, Beroc Policy Paper Series, PP(22), pp. 1-31.
Mody, B. (2015) How well do India's Multiple Language Dailies Provide Political Knowledge to Citizens of this Electoral Democracy, Journalism Studies, 16(5), pp. 734-749.
Montanes, E., Suarez-Vazquez, A., & Quevedo, J. R. (2014) Ordinal classification / regression for analyzing the influence of superstars on spectators in cinema marketing, Expert Systems with Applications, 41(18), pp. 8101–8111.
Patterson, P., & Wilkins, L. (1994) Media ethics: issues and cases (Madison, Dubuque: Brown & Benchmark).
Petty, R. D., & Anrews, C. J. (2008) Covert Marketing Unmasked: A Legal and Regulatory Guide for Practices That Mask Marketing Messages, American Marketing Association, 27(1), pp. 7-18.
Podnar, K., & Golob, U. (2003) Hidden messages in the form of paid journalistic contributions - Anomaly of advertising discourse, Medijska istrazivanja, 9(1), pp. 99-114.
Poler Kovacic, M. (2005) The crisis of journalistic responsibility (Ljubljana: Faculty for Social Sciences).
Potter, W. J., & Levine-Donnerstein, D. (1999) Rethinking Validity and Reliability in Content Analysis, Journal of Applied Communication Research, 27(1999), pp. 258-284.
Prebilic, V. & Hacek, M. (2012) Some Recent Problems of Slovenian Local Self-Government, In: Baclija, I. (ed.) Local Democracy IV: Recent problems of Slovenian local self-government (Maribor: Institute for Local Self - Government and Public Procurement), pp. 1-18.
Rotfeld, H. J. (2008) The Stealth Influence of Covert Marketing and Much Ado About What May Be Nothing, American Marketing Association, 27(1), pp. 63-68.
Sabri, O. (2012) Preliminary investigation of the communication effects of “taboo” themes in advertising, European Journal of Marketing, 46(1/2), pp. 215-236.
Schafraad, P., Wester, F. & Scheepers, P. (2013) Media attention to the Far-right in three Dutch Newspapers 1986-2004, Characteristics and trends, Observatorio, 7(2), pp. 1-31.
Splichal, S. (2003) From the 'noise luck' to a cultured speculation, Bentham and Kant about the principles of public communication, Teorija in praksa, 40(6), pp. 985-1011.
Tomazic, T., Boras, D., Jurisic, J. & Lesjak, D. (2014) Covert Advertising in the Context of Inadmissible Presentation of Information, Industrial Management & Data Systems, 114(1), pp. 107-122.
Toncar, M., & Fetscherin, M. (2012) A study of visual puffery in fragrance advertising. Is the message sent stronger than the actual scent?, European Journal of Marketing, 46(1/2), pp. 52-72.
Vercic, D., Zavrl, F. & Rijavec, P. (2002) Media relations (Ljubljana: GV založba).
Zabel, B. (1999) Market Law: Theory and practice of legal regulation of the market (Ljubljana: Gospodarski vestnik).
Zajc, B. & Zavrl, F. (1998) Covert advertising and public relations, Teorija in praksa, 35(4), pp. 647- 659.