Product, Packaging and Waste Management Database (BDO): A New Public Service and its Application at the Local Level in Poland
In Poland, a new register was established in January 2018, namely the Product, Packaging and Waste Management Database (in Polish – BDO). Its creation was partly necessitated by the implementation of Directive 2012/19/EU on Waste Electrical and Electronic Equipment (WEEE), and Regulation (EC) 1013/2006. The BDO is not only the Register of Notifications and Decisions regarding International Waste Shipments and the Register of Facilities with Issued Pre-Consent, but it is also a waste management tool. The article qualifies the BDO register as a public register under the assumption that, in relation to its recognition as a public register, it can fulfil an additional public utility function, defined as a public service of general interest provided by public authorities. Moreover, the BDO register allows its database content to be searched according to subject terms. It also constitutes a database that fosters the development of B2B services at the local level as it may facilitate searching for local waste collection, transport, recovery (recycling), and disposal providers in accordance with the proximity principle.
Act of 14 December 2012 on Waste (Journal of Laws of 2019, item 701).
Act of 17 February 2005 on computerisation of activities of entities performing public tasks (Journal of Laws 2020, item 346)
Akella, R., Araman, V. F. & Kleinknecht, J. (2002) B2B Markets: Procuremen and Supplier Risk Management in E-Business, In: Geunes J., Pardalos P. M. & Romeijn H. E. (eds) Supply Chain Management: Models, Applications, and Research Directions. Applied Optimization (Boston: Springer), pp. 33-44.
Attard A., J., Orlandi, F., Scerri, S. & Auer, S. ( 2015) A Systematic Review of Open Government Data Initiatives, Government Information Quarterly, 32(4), pp. 399-418.
Banisar, D. (2006) Freedom of Information Around the World 2006: A Global Survey of Access to Government Information Laws, SSRN Electronic Journal, https://doi.org /10.2139/ssrn.1707336.
Başar, M. & Küçükönder, H. (2014) Measuring the Correlation between Commercial and Economic States of Countries (B2G Relations) and the E-Government Readiness Index by Using Neural Networks, Open Journal of Business and Management, 2, pp. 110-115, https://doi.org/10.4236/ojbm.2014.22014.
Batagan, L., Pocovnicu, A. & Capisizu, S. (2009) E-service quality management, Journal of Applied Quantitative Methods, 4(3), pp. 372–381.
Behnke, M. (2001) Kompetentne władze, Problemy Ocen Środowiskowych, 15(4), pp. 17-19.
Central Statistical Office (2019) Environmental Protection 2019, available at: https://stat.gov.pl/obszary-tematyczne/srodowisko-energia/srodowisko/ochrona-srodowiska-2019,1,20.html. (March 14, 2020).
Casaló, L.V., Flavián, C. & Guinalíu M. (2007) M-Government Initiatives at the Local Level: The Case of Zaragoza In: Kushchu, I. (ed.) Mobile Government: An Emerging Direction in e-Government (Hershey: IGI Global), http://doi:10.4018/978-1-59140-884-0 pp. 23-251.
Charalabidis, Y., Alexopoulos, Ch. & Loukis, E. (2016) A taxonomy of open government data research areas and topics, Journal of Organizational Computing and Electronic Commerce, 26(1-2), pp. 41-63, https://doi.org /10.1080/10919392.2015.1124720.
Commission (2014) Commission notice — Guidelines on recommended standard licences, datasets and charging for the reuse of documents, OJ C 240, 24.7.2014, p. 1–10.
Directive (EU) 2019/1024 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 20 June 2019 on open data and the re-use of public sector information, OJ L 172, p. 56.
Directive 2004/35/EC on environmental liability with regard to the prevention and remedying of environmental damage OJ L 197, p. 38.
Directive 2008/98/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 19 November 2008 on waste and repealing certain Directives, OJ L 312, p. 3.
Directive 2012/19/EU of the European Parliament and of the Council of 4 July 2012 on waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE), OJ L 197, p. 38.
Directive (EU) 2019/1024 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 20 June 2019 on open data and the re-use of public sector information.
European Data Protection Supervisor (2018) Accountability on the ground Part I: Records, Registers and when to do Data Protection Impact Assessments, February 2018.
European Environmental Agency 2016: European Environmental Agency, Municipal waste management across European countries 2016, available at: https://www.eea.europa.eu/themes/waste/waste-management/municipal-waste-management-across-european-countries (March 14, 2020).
Gazzard A. (2011) Location, Location, Location: Collecting Space and Place in Mobile Media, Convergence: The International Journal of Research into New Media Technologies 17, pp. 405-417, http://doi:10.1177/1354856511414344, 1.02.2013.
Gonzalez-Zapata, F. & Heeks, R. (2015) The multiple meanings of open government data: understanding different stakeholders and their perspectives, Government Information Quarterly, 32(4), pp. 441-452.
Government of Poland (2012) Government draft on waste (2012) draft No. 456, available at: http://www.sejm.gov.pl/Sejm7.nsf/druk.xsp?nr=456, (March 14, 2020).
Gryszczyńska, A. (2016) Rejestry publiczne. Jawność i interoperacyjność (Warszawa: C.H. Beck)
Jakubiak, M. (2015) Reverse logistics in waste management – from landfilling on streets to sustainable waste management and “zero waste” strategy, LOGISTYKA, 4, pp. 8990-8996.
Jewels, T .J. & Timbrell, G. T. (2001) Towards a definition of B2C & B2B e-commerce, p. 56, available at: http://aisel.aisnet.org/acis2001/56 (March 14, 2020).
Koop, C. (2011) Explaining the Accountability of Independent Agencies: The Importance of Political Salience. Journal of Public Policy, 31(2), pp. 209-234, https://doi.org/10.1017/S0143814X11000080.
Kostera, M. (2003/2005) Antropologia organizacji (Warszawa: PWN).
Leith, P. (2011) Current Issues in Research Access to Public Register Databases, European Journal of Law and Technology, 2(2), available at: http://ejlt.org/article/view/87/136 (March 14, 2020)
Gatsby, A. & Rundell. M. (1995) Longman Dictionary of Contemporary English (Harlow: Longman Dictionaries).
Ministry of Climate (2019) Rejestr BDO, available at https://www.gov.pl/web/klimat/rejestr-bdo (March 14, 2020).
McKinsey on Digital Services (2017) Introducing the next-generation operating model, available at: https://www.mckinsey.com/~/media/mckinsey/business%20functions/mckinsey%20digital/our%20insights/introducing%20the%20next-generation%20operating%20model/introducing-the-next-gen-operating-model.ashx (September 10, 2020).
Naqvi, S., Hassan, S. & Hussain, F. (2017) IoT Applications and Business Models, In: Hussain F. (ed) Internet of Things (Springer Briefs in Electrical and Computer Engineering), pp. 45-61, https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-55405-14.
Oleński, J. (2005) Rejestry administracyjne i systemy katastralne w infrastrukturze informacyjnej państwa, Współpraca wykonawców prac geodezyjnych i kartograficznych z administracji publicznej, available at: http://www.wodgik.katowice.pl/www/pobierz/wydarzenia/2005/Olenski.pdf (March 14, 2020).
Global Witness (2017) Open Ownership and Global Witness report: Learning the lessons from the UK’s public beneficial ownership register, October 2017, available at https://www.globalwitness.org/en/campaigns/corruption-and-money-laundering/learning-lessons-uks-public-beneficial-ownership-register/ (October 23, 2017).
Pires, A., Martinho, G. & Chang N-B. (2011) Solid waste management in European countries: A review of systems analysis techniques, Journal of Environmental Management, 92(4), p. 1033, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jenvman.2010.11.024.
Pollock, R. & Lammerhirt , D. (2019) European Union, In: Davies T., Walker S., Rubinstein M. & Perini, F. (eds) The state of open Data: Histories and Horizons (Cape Town and Ottawa: African Minds and International Development Research Centre), p. 468
Law Commission (2008) Public Register. Review of the Law of Privacy Stage 2 (Wellington: Law Commission), available at: https://www.lawcom.govt.nz/sites/default/files/projectAvailableFormats/NZLC%20R101.pdf (March 14, 2020)
Puzio, M. (2018) The significance of reverse logistics for the waste management system, Transport Economics and Logistics, 78, pp. 147-155, https://doi.org/10.26881/etil.2018.78.12.
Reffat R. M. (2003) Developing a successful e-government. Published Conference Paper: Proceedings of the Symposium on e-Government: Opportunities and Challenge, Muscat Municipality, Oman pp. IV1-IV13.
Regulation (EC) No 1013/2006 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 14 June 2006 on shipments of waste, OJ L 190, 12.7.2006, p. 1–98
Ross, A. P. & Rowan‐Robinson, J. (1994) Public registers of environmental information: an assessment of their role, Journal of Environmental Planning and Management, 37(3), pp. 349-359, https://doi.org /10.1080/09640569408711981.
Regulation of the Council of Ministers of 2012 on the National Interoperability Framework, minimum requirements for public registers, exchange of information in electronic form and minimum requirements for ICT systems, Journal of laws 2014, item 67.
Roggenkamp, K. (2007) "It's the Mobility, Stupid": Designing Mobile Government In: Kushchu, I. (ed) Mobile Government: An Emerging Direction in e-Government (Hershey: IGI Global), http:/doi:10.4018/978-1-59140-884-0 pp. 60-85.
Ruijer, E., Grimmelikhuijsen, S., van den Berg, J. & Meijer, A. (2020) Open data work: understanding open data usage from a practice lens, International Review of Administrative Sciences, 86(1), pp. 3–19.
Schillemans, T. & Busuioc, M. (2015) Predicting Public Sector Accountability: From Agency Drift to Forum Drift, Journal of Public Administration Research and Theory, 25(1), pp. 191–215, https://doi.org/10.1093/jopart/muu024.
Silverman, D. (2016) Qualitative research (Los Angeles/London/New Delhi/Singapore/Washington DC: SAGE).
Sneader, K. & Sternfels, B. (2020) From surviving to thriving: Reimagining the post-COVID-19 return, May 1, 2020, available at: https://www.mckinsey.com/featured-insights/future-of-work/from-surviving-to-thriving-reimagining-the-post-covid-19-return# (September 10, 2020).
Stawecki, T. (2005) Rejestry publiczne. Funkcje instytucji, Warszawa: LexisNexis).
Stewart, B. (2005) Five Strategies for Addressing Public Register Privacy Problems, update of an article, originally released in 1999, available at: www.privacy.org.nz/library/five-strategies-for-addressing-public-registerprivacy-problems (March 14, 2020).
Szczepaniak, K. (2012) Zastosowanie analizy treści w badaniach artykułów prasowych – refleksje metodologiczne, Acta Universitatis Lodziensis, Folia Socjologica, 42, pp. 83-112.
United Nations (2018) The UN E-Government Survey: Gearing e-Government to Support Transformation Towards Sustainable and Resilient Societies, available at: https://publicadministration.un.org/Portals/1/Images/E-Government%20Survey%202018_FINAL%20for%20web.pdf (March 14, 2020)
United Nations (2013) The UN Guidelines on Open Government Data for Citizen Engagement (Washington DC: United Nations).
United Nations (2019) UN Global Compact Network Poland Raport 2019: UN Global Compact Network Poland Raport „Przeciwdziałanie Szarej Strefie w Polsce 2018/19”, Warszawa, available at: https://ungc.org.pl/wp-content/uploads/2019/07/SZARA_STREFA_wwww.pdf (March 14, 2020).
Vargo, S. L. & Lusch, R. F. (2011) It's all B2B…and beyond: Toward a systems perspective of the market, Industrial Marketing Management, 40(2), pp. 181-187, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.indmarman.2010.06.026.
World Bank (2011) Solid Waste Management in Bulgaria, Croatia, Poland, and Romania A cross-country analysis of sector challenges towards EU harmonization, Report No. 60078-ECA (Washington DC: World Bank).
It is a condition that the authors assign copyright or license the publication rights in their articles, including abstracts, to Institute for Local Self-Government Maribor. This enables us to ensure full copyright protection and to disseminate the article, and of course Journal, to the widest possible readership in print and electronic formats as appropriate. Authors retain many rights under the Institutes' right policies, which can be found at journal.lex-localis.press. Authors are themselves responsible for obtaining permission to reproduce copyright material from other sources.