Regional Development Agencies in Turkey on the Scope of Governance and Local Elites: An Evaluation after 10-years-experience

  • Uğur Sadioğlu Hacettepe University, Political Science and Public Administration
  • Kadir Dede Hacettepe University, Political Science and Public Administration
  • Volkan Göçoğlu Afyon Kocatepe University, Dinar School of Applied Sciences
Keywords: administrative reform, governance, local elites, regional development agency, Turkey

Abstract

Under the influence of globalization and the European Union membership accession process, important administrative reform initiatives have been taken in Turkey in the 2000s in the framework of economic, social, political, cultural and technological needs. In this process, central government agencies and administrations, public financial management, local governments and similar public organizations have undergone important transitions. The most important initiative taken to achieve regional governance is the establishment of Regional Development Agencies (RDAs). The present study performs a 10-year longitudinal analysis of RDAs in Turkey in the context of governance and local elites. The first phase of the study was conducted in 2010, and the second phase was conducted in 2019. The aim of the study is to evaluate whether RDAs have realized their potential in local democracy, sustainable development and decentralization, as well as to define the characteristics of policies to be pursued in line with further development of these agencies. Consequently, it has been observed that maintaining a centralized state tradition, along with institutional deficiencies, has transformed RDAs into an apparatus of the central government.

References

Alvarez, M. D., Ertuna, B., Ünalan, D. & Hatipoğlu, B. (2014) The Role of Regional Agencies: Tourism Development in Turkey, Bridging Tourism Theory and Practice, 5, pp.101-124.

Ansell, C. & Gash, A. (2008) Collaborative Governance in Theory and Practice, Journal of Public Administration Research and Theory, 18(4), pp. 543-571.

Aron, R. (1950) Social Structure and the Ruling Class, British Journal of Sociology, 1, pp. 1-16.

Avaner, T. (2005) BKA Siyasal Rejim Sorunu Yaratır mı?,In: Turan, M. (ed) Bölge Kalkınma Ajansları Nedir, Ne Değildir? (Ankara: Paragraf ).

Benz, A. and Eberlein, B. (1999) The Europeanization of Regional Policies: Patterns of Multi-level Governance, Journal of European Public Policy, 6(2), pp. 329-348.

Blair, H. (2000) Participation and Accountability at the Periphery: Democratic Local Governance in Six Countries, World Development, 28(1), pp. 21-39.

Bovaird, T. & Löffler, E. (2002) Moving from Excellence Models of Local Service Delivery to Bencmarking ‘Good Local Governance’, International Review of Administrative Sciences, 68(1) pp. 9-24.

Cox, K. R. (2004) Globalization and the Politics of Local and Regional Development: The Question of Convergence, Transactions of the Institute of British Geographers, 29(2), pp. 179-194.

Çamur, K. C. & Gümüş, Ö. (2005) İstatistiki Bölge Birimleri (NUTS Sistemi), In: Turan, M. (eds.) Bölge Kalkınma Ajansları Nedir, Ne Değildir?, (Ankara: Paragraf), pp. 147-157.

Çukurçayır, M. A. (2010) Bölge Kalkınması ve Bölgesel Yönetişim, In: Çukurçayır, M. A., Eroğlu, H. T. & Uğuz, H. E. (eds) Yönetişim – Kuram, Boyutlar ve Uygulama (Konya: Çizgi Kitabevi), pp 617-643.

Dahl, R, A. (1970) Who Governs – Democracy and Power in an American City (New Haven and London: Yale University Press).

Danson, M. & Lloyd, G. (2012) Devolution, Institutions, and Organisations: Changing Models of Regional Development Agencies, Environment and Planning C: Government and Policy, 30, pp. 78-94.

Dasgupta, A. & Beard, V. A. (2007) Community Driven Development, Collective Action and Elite Capture in Indonesia, Development and Change, 38(2), pp. 229–249.

Davis, H. & Geddes, M. (2000) The Modernization and Improvement of Government and Public Services: Deepening Democracy or Élite Governance? New Political Management Arrangements in Local Government, Public Money & Management, 20(2), pp. 15-20.

Deas, I. & Ward, K. G. (2000) From the ‘New Localism’ to the ‘New Regionalism’? The Implications of Regional Development Agencies for City–Regional Relations, Political Geography, 19, pp: 273–292.

Denters, B. (2013) Local Governance, In: Bevir, M. (ed) The Sage Handbook of Governance (London: Sage), pp. 313-329.

Dulupçu, M. A. (2005) Regionalization for Turkey: An Illusion or a Cure?, European Urban and Regional Studies, 12(2), pp: 99-115.

Digaetano, A. & Storm, E. (2003) Comparative Urban Governance: An Integrated Approach, Urban Affairs Review, 38(3), pp. 356-395.

Döringer, S. (2020) Individual Agency and Socio-Spatial Change in Regional Development: Conceptualizing Governance Entrepreneurship, Geography Compass, https://doi.org/10.1111/gec3.12486, pp: 1-17.

Dorussen, H., Lend, H. & Blavoukos S. (2005) Assessing the Reliability and Validity of Expert Interviews. European Union Politics, 6(3), pp. 315-337.

Erbil, T. & Öğüt Erbil, A. (2019) A Review of the Climate Change Related Activities of Regional Development Agencies Between 2010-2017 in Turkey, Planlama, 29(1), pp. 10-22.

Ertugal, E. (2017) Challenges for Regional Governance in Turkey: The Role of Development Agencies, METU JFA, 34(2), pp. 203-224.

Eversole, R. & Walo, M. (2019) Leading and Following in Australian Regional Development: Why governance matters, Regional Science Policy and Practice, pp. 1-12, https://doi.org/10.1111/rsp3.12232.

Gibbs, D. (1998) Regional Development Agencies and Sustainable Development, Regional Studies, 32(4), pp. 365-368.

Gibbs, D. (2000) Ecological Modernisation, Regional Economic Development and Regional Development Agencies, Geoforum, 31, pp. 9-19.

Gibbs, D. & Jonas, A. E. G. (2001) Rescaling and Regional Governance: the English Regional Development Agencies and the environment, Environment and Planning C: Government and Policy, 19, pp. 269-288.

Goddard, J. B. & Chatterton, P. (1999) Regional Development Agencies and The Knowledge Economy: Harnessing The Potential of Universities, Environment and Planning C: Government and Policy, 17, 685-699.

Gough, J. (2003) The Genesis And Tensions of The English Regional Development Agencies: Class Relations and Scale, European Urban and Regional Studies, 10(1), pp. 23–38.

Göymen, K. (2010) Türkiye’de Yerel Yönetişim ve Yerel Kalkınma (İstanbul: Boyut Yayıncılık).

Güler, B. A. (2010) Türkiye’nin Yönetimi-Yapı (Ankara: İmge Kitabevi).

Güney, R. & Sat, A. N. (2016) Bölge Planlamada Katılım: İzmir ve Batı Karadeniz Kalkınma Ajansları Üzerine Bir İrdeleme, Planlama, 26(2), pp. 101-116.

Habermas, J. (1991) The Structural Transformation of the Public Sphere: An Inquiry into a Category of Bourgeois Society (Studies in Contemporary German Social Thought) (Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press).

Halkier, H. & Danso, M. (1997) Regional Development Agencies in Europe: A Survey of Key Characteristics and Trends, European Urban and Regional Studies, 4(3), pp: 243-256.

Hartmann M. (2006) The Sociology of Elites (London & New York: Routledge).

Higley J. (2010) Elite’s Illusiıons About Democracy, In: Best, H. & Higley, J. (eds.) Democratic Elitism: New Theoretical and Comparative Perspectives (Leiden – Boston: Brill), pp: 79-96.

Hooghe, L. & Marks, G. (2003) Unraveling the Central State, but How? Types of Multi-level Governance, American Political Science Review, 97(2), 233-243.

John, P. (2001) Local Governance in Western Europe (London, Thousand Oaks, New Delhi: Sage Publications).

Karasu, K. (2009) Yerelleşme Söylemi ve Bölge Kalkınma Ajansları, Memleket Siyaset Yönetim, 4(11), pp: 1-43.

Kooiman, J. (2003) Governing as Governance (London: Sage Publications).

Koyuncu, B. (2000) Yerel Özerklik: Modeller ve Uygulamalar, Muğla Üniversitesi SBE Dergisi, 1(1), pp. 97-117.

Kuhlmann, S. & Wollmann H. (2019) Introduction to Comparative Public Administration: Administrative Systems and Reforms in Europe (Cheltenham, UK: Edward Elgar).

Lagendijk, A., Kayasu, S. & Yasar, S. (2009) The Role of Regional Development Agencies in Turkey: From Implementing EU Directives to Supporting Regional Business Communities?, European Urban and Regional Studies, 16(4), pp: 383-396.

Leach, S. & Wilson, D. (2004) Urban Elites in England: New Models of Executive Governance, International Journal of Urban and Regional Research, 28(1), pp: 134-149.

Löffler, E. (2003) Governance as an Emerging Trend in the Public Sector, In: Bovaird, T. & Löffler, E. (eds.) Public Management and Governance (London: Routledge), pp. 163-175.

Martinsen, R. (2008) New Modes of Governance: Opportunities and Limitations of Creating Legitimacy by Deliberative Politics in a Globalizing World, In: Schmitt-Beck, R., Debiel, T. & Korte, K. R. (eds.) Governance and Legitimacy in a Globalized World, (Baden-Baden: Nomos Verlagsgesellschaft), pp. 9-30.

Ministry of Development (2016) 2015 Development Agencies General Activity Report (Ankara: Ministry of Development).

Mitra, S. K. (2002) Power Protest and Participation; Local Elites and Development in India (London and New York: Routledge).

Moulaert, F., Jessop, B. & Mehmood, A. (2016) Agency, Structure, Institutions, Discourse (ASID) in Urban and Regional Development, International Journal of Urban Sciences, 20(2), pp. 167-187.

Musgrave, M. K. & Wong, S. (2016) Towards a More Nuanced Theory of Elite Capture in Development Projects. The Importance of Context and Theories of Power, Journal of Sustainable Development, 9(3), pp. 87-103.

Nabatchi, T. & O’Leary, R. (2005) The New Governance: Practices and Processes for Stakeholder and Citizen Participation in the Work of Government, Public Administration Review, 65(5), pp: 547-558.

Ömürgönülşen, U. & Sadioğlu, U. (2009) Türkiye’de Yakın Dönemde Yapılan Yerel Yönetim Reform Çalışmalarının İl Özel İdarelerine Yansımaları, Çağdaş Yerel Yönetimler Dergisi, 18(1), pp. 1-22.

Ömürgönülşen, U. (2003) Kamu Sektörünün Yönetimi Sorununa Yeni Bir Yaklaşım: Yeni Kamu İşletmeciliği, In: Acar, M. & Özgür, H. (eds.) Çağdaş Kamu Yönetimi I – Konular, Kuramlar, Kavramlar (Ankara: Nobel Yayın Dağıtım), pp: 3-43.

Payne, D. & Bennett, R. J. (2003) Regional Development Agencies in the United Kingdom: Labour’s Flagship Sailing at Half-Mast?, Rationality and Society, 15(1), pp: 44-63.

Pearce, G. & Ayres, S. (2009) Governance in the English Regions: The Role of the Regional Development Agencies, Urban Studies, 46(3), pp: 537-557.

Peters, B. G. & Pierre, J. (1998) Governance Without Government? Rethinking Public Administration, Journal of Public Administration Research and Theory, 8(1), pp. 223–243.

Pierre, J. (2005) Comparative Urban Governance. Urban Affairs Review, 40(4), pp. 446-462.

Rhodes, R. A. W. (1996) The New Governance: Governing Without Government, Political Studies, 44, pp. 652-667.

Rigon, A. (2014) Building Local Governance: Participation and Elite Capture in Slum-upgrading in Kenya, Development and Change, 45(2), pp: 257–283.

Sadioğlu, U. & Ömürgönülşen, U. (2011) Yerel Yönetim Personel Sistemlerinde Reform Çalışmaları: Alman ve Türk Deneyimlerinden Yansıyan Eğilimler ve Türkiye İçin Çıkarılabilecek Bazı Dersler, Yakın Doğu Üniversitesi Sosyal Bilimler Dergisi, 4(1), pp. 129-171.

Sadioğlu, U. (2018) Türkiye’de ve Almanya’da Yaşanan Yerel Yönetimler Reformunun Karşılaştırılması: Yeni Bir Model Önerisi (Ankara: Seçkin Yayıncılık).

Schulze, R. O. & Blumberg, L. U. (1957) The Determination of Local Power Elites, American Journal of Sociology, 63(3), pp. 290-296.

Scott, J. W. (2009) (ed.) De-coding New Regionalism – Shifting Socio-political Contexts in Central Europe and Latin America (Surrey, England: Ashgate).

Sertesen, S. (2015) How Should We Consider The Future of Development Agencies?, TEPAV Analysis Report, N201509, pp. 1-6.

Shaw, P. W. R. & Lloyd, G. (2000) Regional Development Agencies in England: New Strategic Regional Planning Issues?, Regional Studies, 34(1), pp: 75-79.

Stoker, G. (1998) Governance as Theory: Five Propositions, International Social Science Journal, 68(227-228), pp. 17-27.

Swyngedouw, E. (2005) Governance Innovation and the Citizen: The Janus Face of Governance-beyond-the-State, Urban Studies, 42(11), 1991-2006.

Turkish Court of Accounts. (2018) 2017 Development Agencies General Audit Report (Ankara: Turkish Court of Accounts).

Viana, C., Coudel, E., Barlow, J., Ferreira, J., Gardner, T. & Parry, L. (2016) How Does Hybrid Governance Emerge? Role of the elite in building a Green Municipality in the Eastern Brazilian Amazon, Environmental Policy and Governance, 26, pp. 337-350.

Webb, D. & Collis, C. (2000) Regional Development Agencies and the ‘New Regionalism’ in England, Regional Studies, 34(9), pp. 857-864.

Published
2020-04-27
Section
Article