Environmental Tax Revenue and Expenditures in EU and Serbia - Lessons to be Learnt from Statistics
In this research, we emphasize the issues of collecting environmental taxes and spending for environmental protection at the EU 28 plus countries as a benchmark and Serbia. We find no correlation between environmental taxes in EU and expenses incurred for the environment, while at the same time there is a positive, statistically significant relationship between the two variables in Serbia. The observed period covers 2009-2017. This means that government taxes and budget are the main sources of financing green projects in Serbia, therefore, showing lower environmental awareness of companies and citizens.
Abdullah, S. & Morley, B. (2014) Environmental taxes and economic growth: Evidence from panel causality test, Energy Economics, 42, pp. 27–33.
Andreoni, V. (2019) Enviromental taxes: drivers behind the revenue collected, Journal of Cleaner Production, 221, pp. 17-26.
Broietti, C., Flach, L., Rover, S. & Salvador de Souza, J. A. (2018) Public expenditure and the environmental management of Brazilian municipalities: a panel data model, International Journal of Sustainable Development & World Ecology, 25(7), pp. 630-641.
Coalition 27 (2019) Shadow report on Chapter 27- Environment and climate change March 2018-February 2019,available at: http://www.caneurope.org/docman/south-east-europe/3538-money-talks-6th-annual-report-by-serbia-s-coalition-27-environment-climate-change/file (July 29, 2019).
Cho, C. H., Guidry, R. P., Hageman, A. M. & Patten, D. M. (2012) Do actions speak louder than words? An empirical investigation of corporate environmental reputation, Accounting, Organizations and Society, 37(1), pp. 14-25.
da Silva, M. D. R. & Silva Leitao, C. R. (2019) Environmental Costs: an analysis of voluntary Disclosure in Brazilian agribusiness companies listed on B3, Custos e agronegocio on line, 15(4), pp. 437-456.
de Miranda Pereira, P. V. & Neto, L. F. F. (2018) Socioeconomic variables and public environmental expenditures of Brazilian Municipalities: an analysis in the period 2005, Brazilian Journal of Management/Revista de Administração da UFSM, 11(ES), pp. 826-842.
D’Uva, M. (2017) Population and industrial pressure on local environmental expenditure in the Italian regions, Land Use Policy, 69, pp. 386-391.
Ercolano, S. & Romano, O. (2018) Spending for the Environment: General Government expenditure trends in Europe, Social indicators research, 138(3), pp. 1145-1169.
Environmental Protection Agency (2018) Report on Economic Instruments for Environmental protection 2017, available at: https://www.sepa.gov.rs/download/posebni/EkonomskiInstrumenti_2017.pdf, (July 29, 2019).
European Commission (2016) Screening report Serbia Chapter 27- Environment MD114/16, available at: https://ec.europa.eu/neighbourhood-enlargement/sites/near/files/screening_report_serbia_-_chapter_27_-_environment.pdf, accessed (July 29, 2019).
European Commission (2018) Serbia 2018 Report, avaiable at: https://ec.europa.eu/neighbourhood-enlargement/sites/near/files/20180417-serbia-report.pdf (July 29, 2019).
Environmental protection Agency (2017) Report on Economic Instruments for Environmental protection (Belgrade, Serbia).
Fairbrother, M. (2019) When will people pay to pollute? Environmental taxes, political trust and experimental evidence from Britain, British Journal of Political Science, 49(2), 661-682.
Fiscal Council (2019) Investments in environmental protection: a social and fiscal priority. General Assessment, available at: http://www.fiskalnisavet.rs/doc/eng/FC%20-%20Investments%20in%20environmental%20protection.pdf (July 29, 2019).
Holt, A. G. & Popeanga, V. N. (2015) Theoretical aspects on the effectiveness of environmental expenditures, Annals of the „Constantin Brâncuşi” University of Târgu Jiu, Economy Series, 2(1), pp. 102-108.
Gholipour, H. F. & Farzanegan, M. R. (2018) Institutions and the effectiveness of expenditures on environmental protection: evidence from Middle Eastern countries, Constitutional Political Economy, 29(1), pp. 20-39.
IDB (2013) Are environmentally related taxes effective?, Working paper series, Inter American Development Bank, IDB WP467.
IMF.2012.Environmental tax reform: principles from theory and practice to date. Working paper series. International Monetary Fund. WP12/180
Kaufmann, R. K. (2019). Pass-through of motor gasoline taxes: Efficiency and efficacy of environmental taxes, Energy policy, 125, pp. 207-215.
Knežević, G., Pavlović, V., & Stevanović, S. (2018) Upgrading waste management and sustainability reporting in banking industry: Evidence from Serbia, Industrija, 46(3), pp. 163-183.
Ladaru, G. R., & Dracea, R. (2017) Influence of the Environmental Protection Expenditure Dynamics on the Economic Growth in Romania During 2008-2015, Revista the Chimie (Bucharest), 68(9), pp. 2166-2171.
Liu, A. A. (2013) Tax evasion and optimal environmental taxes, Journal of Environmental Economics and Management, 66(3), 656-670.
Munitlak Ivanović, O., & Golušin, M. (2012) Environmental Taxation as a Tool for Sustainable Development Policy-State Comparison of Serbia and Application of Ecological Taxation Reform in European Union, Economic analysis, 45(1-2), pp. 32-44.
OECD Publication Service (2001) Environmentally related taxes in OECD coutries, available at: https://www.cbd.int/financial/fiscalenviron/g-fiscaltaxes-oecd.pdf (July 29, 2019).
EUROSTAT (2013) Manuals and guidelines: Environmental taxes: A statistical guide (Brussels: EUROSTAT).
Singh, N., Ma, J. & Yang, J. (2016) Optimizing environmental expenditures for maximizing economic performance, Management Decision, 54(10), pp. 2544-2561.
Sterner, T. & Köhlin, G. (2003) Environmental taxes in Europe, Public finance and management, 3(1), pp. 117-142.
Stojanović, M. (2017) Environmental fee as a part of the environmental taxes system in the Republic of Serbia, Ekonomski signali: poslovni magazin, 12(1), pp. 41-54.
Stojanović, M. & Djordjević, M. (2016) The role of environmental taxes in Serbian tax system, Ekonomika, 62(4), pp. 75-84.
Todea, N. & Cioca, I. C. (2018) Analysis of correlation between environmental protection expenditrure and gross domestic product in EU countries, Journal of Environmental protection and ecology, 19(4), pp. 1947-1954.
Webster, A. & Ayatakshi, S. (2013) The effect of fossil energy and other environmental taxes on profit incentives for change in an open economy: Evidence from the UK, Energy policy, 61, pp. 1422-1431.
Zhang, D., Du, W., Zhuge, L., Tong, Z. & Freeman, R. B. (2019) Do financial constraints curb firms’ efforts to control pollution? Evidence from Chinese manufacturing firms, Journal of cleaner production, 215, pp. 1052-1058.
Zhang, J., Qu, Y., Zhang, Y., Li, X. & Miao, X. (2019) Effects of FDI on the Efficiency of Government Expenditure on Environmental Protection Under Fiscal Decentralization: A Spatial Econometric Analysis for China, International journal of environmental research and public health, 16(14), p. E2496.
Yip, C. M. (2018) On the labor market consequences of environmental taxes, Journal of Environmental Economics and Management, 89, pp. 136-152.
It is a condition that the authors assign copyright or license the publication rights in their articles, including abstracts, to Institute for Local Self-Government Maribor. This enables us to ensure full copyright protection and to disseminate the article, and of course Journal, to the widest possible readership in print and electronic formats as appropriate. Authors retain many rights under the Institutes' right policies, which can be found at journal.lex-localis.press. Authors are themselves responsible for obtaining permission to reproduce copyright material from other sources.