Good Governance and Public Trust: Assessing the Mediating Effect of E-Government in Pakistan
Administrative practices have always been acknowledged as a crucial tool for establishing good governance. Strong evidence shows that good governance extensively influences citizens’ behaviors toward government. This study empirically examines how good governance promote public trust with possibly mediating role of e-government. A field survey was conducted by distributing questionnaires to 1000 Pakistani individuals. The response rate was 76.3%. Confirmatory factor analysis and structural equation modelling were used to analyze the data. The results confirmed the casual relationship between good governance and public trust. The results also reveal that e-government plays a mediating role in the relationship between good governance and public trust. The findings may be practically useful for both research and policy making, since it investigated the citizens' perspective of good governance, public trust and e-government.
Alaaraj, H. & Hassan, S. (2016) Does Good Governance Mediate Relationship Between E-Government and Public Trust in Lebanon?, International Review of Management and Marketing, 6(3), pp. 500-509.
Baron, R. M. & Kenny, D. A. (1986) The moderator–mediator variable distinction in social psychological research: Conceptual, strategic, and statistical considerations, Journal of personality and social psychology, 51(6), pp. 1173-1182.
Bentham, J. (1999) Political Tactics Ed Michael James, Cyprian Blamires, and Catherine Pease-Watkin (Oxford: Clarendon Press).
Blind, P. K. (2007) Building trust in government in the twenty-first century: Review of literature and emerging issues. Paper presented at the 7th Global Forum on Reinventing Government Building Trust in Government.
Bouckaert, G. (2012) Trust and public administration; Administration, 60(1), pp. 91-115.
Caillier, J. (2010) Citizen trust, political corruption, and voting behavior: Connecting the dots, Politics & Policy, 38(5), pp. 1015-1035.
Cegarra-Navarro, J.-G., Pachón, J. R. C. & Cegarra, J. L. M. (2012) E-government and citizen's engagement with local affairs through e-websites: The case of Spanish municipalities, International Journal of Information Management, 32(5), pp. 469-478.
Chadwick, A., & May, C. (2003) Interaction between States and Citizens in the Age of the Internet:“e‐Government” in the United States, Britain, and the European Union, Governance, 16(2), pp. 271-300.
Chang, S.-J., Van Witteloostuijn, A. & Eden, L. (2010) From the editors: Common method variance in international business research (Berlin: Springer).
Chen, X. & Shi, T. (2001) Media effects on political confidence and trust in the People's Republic of China in the post-Tiananmen period, East Asia, 19(3), pp. 84-118.
Christopher, S., Watts, V., McCormick, A. K. H. G. & Young, S. (2008) Building and maintaining trust in a community-based participatory research partnership, American Journal of Public Health, 98(8), pp. 1398-1406.
Clark, J. R., & Lee, D. (2001) The optimal trust in government, Eastern Economic Journal, 27(1), pp. 19-34.
Co-operation, O. f. E. & Development (2013) Trust in government, policy effectiveness and the governance agenda (Paris: OECD Publishing).
Connell, N. & Mannion, R. (2006) Conceptualisations of trust in the organisational literature: some indicators from a complementary perspective, Journal of health organization and management, 20(5), pp. 417-433.
Cooper, C. A., Knotts, H. G. & Brennan, K. M. (2008) The importance of trust in government for public administration: The case of zoning, Public Administration Review, 68(3), pp. 459-468.
Dion, M. (2010) What is corruption corrupting? A philosophical viewpoint, Journal of Money Laundering Control, 13(1), pp. 45-54.
Drost, E. A. (2011) Validity and reliability in social science research, Education Research and perspectives, 38(1), pp. 105-124.
Fard, H. D. & Rostamy, A. A. A. (2007) Promoting public trust in public organizations: Explaining the role of public accountability, Public Organization Review, 7(4), pp. 331-344.
Fornell, C. & Larcker, D. F. (1981) Evaluating structural equation models with unobservable variables and measurement error, Journal of marketing research, 18(1), pp. 39-50.
Furlong, S. (2005) E-government in Canada: Building public trust through citizen-centric governance, Cataloging-in-Publication data provided by the Inter-American Development Bank Felipe Herrera Library, 61, available at: http://myweb.rollins.edu/tlairson/pek/knowledgeeconomy.pdf#page=70 (September 13, 2018).
Gefen, D., Straub, D. & Boudreau, M.-C. (2000) Structural equation modeling and regression: Guidelines for research practice, Communications of the association for information systems, 4(1), article 7.
Griffin, L. (2010) The limits to good governance and the state of exception: a case study of North Sea fisheries, Geoforum, 41(2), pp. 282-292.
Grimmelikhuijsen, S. G. (2012) Transparency and trust. An experimental study of online disclosure and trust in government (Utrecht: University Utrecht).
Hair, J., Black, W., Babin, B., Anderson, R. & Tatham, R. (2010) Multivariate Data Analysis New Jersey: Pearson Prentice Hall. Alih bahasa: Soleh Rusyadi Maryam. Jilid, 2.
Heald, D. A. (2006) Varieties of transparency Transparency: The Key to Better Governance?: Proceedings of the British Academy 135 (Oxford: Oxford University Press).
Hetherington, M. J. (1999) The effect of political trust on the presidential vote, 1968–96, American Political Science Review, 93(2), pp. 311-326.
James, L. R. & Brett, J. M. (1984) Mediators, moderators, and tests for mediation, Journal of applied psychology, 69(2), pp. 307-321.
James, L. R., Mulaik, S. A. & Brett, J. M. (2006) A tale of two methods, Organizational research methods, 9(2), pp. 233-244.
Jöreskog, K. G. & Sörbom, D. (1982) Recent developments in structural equation modeling, Journal of marketing research, 19(4), pp. 404-416.
Joshi, V. D., Malhotra, R., Lim, J. F., Ostbye, T. & Wong, M. (2010) Validity and reliability of the expectations regarding aging (ERA-12) instrument among middle-aged Singaporeans, Ann Acad Med Singapore, 39(2), pp. 394-398.
Kaufmann, D. K. & Kraay, A. (2010) A. and Mastruzzi, M. 2010, The Worldwide Governance Indicators: A Summary of Methodology, Data and Analytical Issues. World Bank Policy Research Working Paper(5430) (Washington D.C.: The World Bank).
Keil, M., Tan, B. C., Wei, K.-K., Saarinen, T., Tuunainen, V. & Wassenaar, A. (2000) A cross-cultural study on escalation of commitment behavior in software projects, MIS quarterly, 24(2), pp. 299-325.
Kim, B. S. & Kim, J. H. (2007) Increasing trust in government through more participatory and transparent government (Seoul: Presidential Committee on Government Innovation & Decentralization, Republic of Korea).
Kim, S. (2010) Public trust in government in Japan and South Korea: Does the rise of critical citizens matter?, Public Administration Review, 70(5), pp. 801-810.
Kline, R. B. (1998) Software review: Software programs for structural equation modeling: Amos, EQS, and LISREL, Journal of psychoeducational assessment, 16(4), pp. 343-364.
Lee, S. M., Tan, X. & Trimi, S. (2005) Current practices of leading e-government countries. Communications of the ACM, 48(10), pp. 99-104.
Levi, M. & Stoker, L. (2000) Political trust and trustworthiness, Annual review of political science, 3(1), pp. 475-507.
Ma, L. & Zheng, Y. (2017) Does e-government performance actually boost citizen use? Evidence from European countries, Public Management Review, 10, pp. 1-20.
McNeish, D. (2017) Thanks coefficient Alpha, we’ll take it from here, Psychol Methods, 23(3), pp. 412-433.
Miller, A. H. & Listhaug, O. (1998) Policy preferences and political distrust: A comparison of Norway, Sweden and the United States, Scandinavian Political Studies, 21(2), pp. 161-187.
Mimicopoulos, M. G., Kyj, L., Sormani, N., Bertucci, G. & Qian, H. (2007) Public governance indicators: A literature review (Waashngton D.C.: United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs).
Morgeson, F. V. & Petrescu, C. (2011) Do they all perform alike? An examination of perceived performance, citizen satisfaction and trust with US federal agencies, International Review of Administrative Sciences, 77(3), pp. 451-479.
Morgeson III, F. V., VanAmburg, D. & Mithas, S. (2010) Misplaced trust? Exploring the structure of the e-government-citizen trust relationship, Journal of public administration research and theory, 21(2), pp. 257-283.
Mulaik, S. A. (2001) The curve-fitting problem: An objectivist view, Philosophy of Science, 68(2), pp. 218-241.
Nye, J. S., Zelikow, P. & King, D. C. (1997) Why people don't trust government (Harvard University Press).
Osifo, O. C. (2012) The effects of ethical governance on public trust: a comparative analysis of anti-corruption policies and procedures in Nigeria, Ghana, and Cameroon, Acta Wasaensia (270) (Vaasa: Universitas Wasaensis).
Park, H. & Blenkinsopp, J. (2011) The roles of transparency and trust in the relationship between corruption and citizen satisfaction, International Review of Administrative Sciences, 77(2), pp. 254-274.
Pillay, S. (2004) Corruption–the challenge to good governance: a South African perspective, International Journal of Public Sector Management, 17(7), pp. 586-605.
Podsakoff, P. M., MacKenzie, S. B., Lee, J.-Y. & Podsakoff, N. P. (2003) Common method biases in behavioral research: A critical review of the literature and recommended remedies, Journal of applied psychology, 88(5), pp. 879-903.
Qudrat-I Elahi, K. (2009) UNDP on good governance, International Journal of Social Economics, 36(12), pp. 1167-1180.
Raab, C. D. (1998) Electronic confidence: Trust, information and public administration, In: Snellen, I. Th. M & Van De Donk, W. B. H. J. (eds.) Public Administrations in an Information Age: A Handbook (Amsterdam: IOS Press), pp. 113-133.
Rahaman, M. M. (2008) Parliament and good governance: a Bangladeshi perspective, Japanese Journal of Political Science, 9(1), pp. 39-62.
Ray, B. (1999) Good governance, administrative reform and socio-economic realities: A South Pacific perspective, International Journal of Social Economics, 26(1/2/3), pp. 354-369.
Saich, T. (2007) China in 2006: focus on social development, Asian Survey, 47(1), pp. 32-43.
Salminen, A. & Ikola-Norrbacka, R. (2010) Trust, good governance and unethical actions in Finnish public administration, International Journal of Public Sector Management, 23(7), pp. 647-668.
Santhanamery, T. & Ramayah, T. (2014) Explaining the e-Government usage using expectation confirmation model: The case of electronic tax filing in Malaysia, In: Anthopoulos, L. G. & Reddick, C. G. (eds.) Government e-Strategic Planning and Management (Berlin: Springer), pp. 287-304.
Shafritz, J. M., Russell, E. W. & Borick, C. (2015) Introducing public administration, (London: Routledge).
Shaver, J. M. (2005) Testing for mediating variables in management research: Concerns, implications, and alternative strategies, Journal of management, 31(3), pp. 330-353.
Thomas, C. W. (1998) Maintaining and restoring public trust in government agencies and their employees, Administration & Society, 30(2), pp. 166-193.
Tolbert, C. J. & Mossberger, K. (2006) The effects of e‐government on trust and confidence in government, Public Administration Review, 66(3), pp. 354-369.
Tyler, T. R. (1998) Trust and democratic governance, In: Braithwaite, V., Levi, M., Cook, K. S. & Hardin, R. (eds.) Trust and governance (New York: JSTOR), p. 269.
Van de Walle, S., Van Roosbroek, S. & Bouckaert, G. (2008) Trust in the public sector: is there any evidence for a long-term decline?, International Review of Administrative Sciences, 74(1), pp. 47-64.
Waheduzzaman, W. (2010) People's Participation For Good Governance: Conceptualisation In Bangladesh Context, availabe at: https://www.anzam.org/wp-content/uploads/pdf-manager/864_ANZAM2010-203.PDF (October 18, 2018).
Wang, H., Law, K. S., Hackett, R. D., Wang, D. & Chen, Z. X. (2005) Leader-member exchange as a mediator of the relationship between transformational leadership and followers' performance and organizational citizenship behavior, Academy of management Journal, 48(3), pp. 420-432.
Welch, E. W. & Hinnant, C. C. (2003) Internet use, transparency, and interactivity effects on trust in government. Paper presented at the System Sciences, 2003. Proceedings of the 36th Annual Hawaii International Conference on.
Welch, E. W., Hinnant, C. C. & Moon, M. J. (2004) Linking citizen satisfaction with e-government and trust in government, Journal of public administration research and theory, 15(3), pp. 371-391.
West, D. M. (2004) E‐government and the transformation of service delivery and citizen attitudes, Public Administration Review, 64(1), pp. 15-27.
Zhao, D. & Hu, W. (2017) Determinants of public trust in government: Empirical evidence from urban China, International Review of Administrative Sciences, 83(2), pp. 358-377.
Zhuang, Y. & Lederer, A. L. (2003) An instrument for measuring the business benefits of e-commerce retailing, International Journal of electronic commerce, 7(3), pp. 65-99.
Zubair, S. S. & Khan, M. A. (2014) Good Governance: Pakistan's Economic Growth and Worldwide Governance Indicators, Pakistan Journal of Commerce and Social Sciences, 8(1), pp. 258-271.
It is a condition that the authors assign copyright or license the publication rights in their articles, including abstracts, to Institute for Local Self-Government Maribor. This enables us to ensure full copyright protection and to disseminate the article, and of course Journal, to the widest possible readership in print and electronic formats as appropriate. Authors retain many rights under the Institutes' right policies, which can be found at journal.lex-localis.press. Authors are themselves responsible for obtaining permission to reproduce copyright material from other sources.